Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Optical spectroscopic characterization of amorphous germanium carbide materials obtained by X-Ray Chemical Vapor Deposition

1 Department of Chemistry, NIS Reference Center, University of Torino, via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125 Torino, Italy;
2 INSTM via Giusti, 9, 50121 Firenze, Italy

Special Issues: Optical spectroscopic characterization of inorganic, organic and hybrid materials

Amorphous germanium carbides have been prepared by X-ray activated Chemical Vapor Deposition from germane/allene systems. The allene percentage and irradiation time (total dose) were correlated to the composition, the structural features, and the optical coefficients of the films, as studied by IR and UV-VIS spectroscopic techniques. The materials composition is found to change depending on both the allene percentage in the mixture and the irradiation time. IR spectroscopy results indicate that the solids consist of randomly bound networks of carbon and germanium atoms with hydrogen atoms terminating all the dangling bonds. Moreover, the elemental analysis results, the absence of both unsaturated bonds and CH3 groups into the solids and the absence of allene autocondensation reactions products, indicate that polymerization reactions leading to mixed species, containing Ge-C bonds, are favored. Eopt values around 3.5 eV have been found in most of the cases, and are correlated with C sp3-bonding configuration. The B1/2 value, related to the order degree, has been found to be dependent on solid composition, atoms distribution in the material and hydrogenation degree of carbon atoms.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Mazerolles P, Morancho R, Reynes A (1986) Silicon, Germanium, Tin, Lead Compd 9: 243-271.

2. Seraphin BO (1976) Optical Properties of Solids. New Developments; North-Holland Publishing Co.: Amsterdam, NL.

3. Drüsedau T, Andreas A, Schröder B, et al. (1994) Vibrational, optical and electronic properties of the hydrogenated amorphous germanium-carbon alloy system. Philos Mag 69: 1-20.

4. Saito N, Nakaaki I, Iwata H, et al. (2007) Optical and electrical properties of undoped and oxygen-doped a-GeC:H films prepared by magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Film 515: 3766-3771.    

5. Kumar S, Kashyap SC, Chopra KL (1998) Structure and transport properties of amorphous Ge1-xCx:H thin films obtained by activated reactive evaporation. J Non-Cryst Solids 101: 287.

6. Shinar J, Wu HS, Shinar R, et al. (1987). An IR, optical, and electron-spin-resonance study of as-deposit ed and annealed a-Ge1-xCx-H prepared by RF-sputtering in Ar/H2/C3H8. J Appl Phys 62:808-812.    

7. Saito N, Nakaaki I, Yamaguchi T, et al. (1995) Influence of deposition conditions on the properties of a-GeC:H and a-Ge:H films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 269: 69-74.    

8. Jacobsohn LG, Freire FL, Mariotto G (1998) Investigation on the chemical, structural and mechanical properties of carbon-germanium films deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering. Diam Relat Mater 7: 440-443.    

9. Vilcarromero J, Marques FC (1999) Hydrogen in amorphous germanium-carbon. Thin Solid Films343-344: 445-448.

10. Mariotto G, Vinegoni C, Jacobsohn LG, et al. (1999) Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy investigation of annealed amorphous carbon-germanium films deposited by d.c. magnetron sputtering. Diam Relat Mater 8: 668-672.    

11. Kumeda M, Masuda A, Shimizu T (1998) Structural studies on hydrogenated amorphous germanium-carbon films prepared by RF sputtering. Jpn J Appl Phys 36: 1754-1759.

12. Hu CQ, Zheng WT, Zheng B, et al. (2004) Chemical bonding of a-Ge1-xCx:H films grown by RF reactive sputtering. Vacuum 77: 63-68.    

13. Yuan H, Williams R (1993) Synthesis by laser ablation and characterization of pure germanium-carbon alloy thin-films. Chem Mater5: 479-485.

14. Booth DC, Voss KJ (1981) The optical and structural properties of CVD germanium carbide. J Phys Colloques 42: C4-1033-C4-1036.

15. Gazicki M. (1999) Plasma deposition of thin carbon/germanium alloy films from organogermanium compounds. Caos Soliton Fract, 10: 1983-2017.    

16. Kazimierski P, Tyczkowski J, Kozanecki M, et al. (2002) Transition from amorphous semiconductor to amorphous insulator in hydrogenated carbon-germanium films investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Chem Mater 14: 4694-4701.    

17. Gazicki M, Ledzion R, Mazurczyk R, et al. (1998) Deposition and properties of germanium/carbon films deposited from tetramethylgermanium in a parallel plate RF discharge. Thin Solid Films 322:123-131.    

18. Kazimierski P, Tyczkowski J (2003) Deposition technology of a new nanostructured material for reversible charge storage. Surf Coat Tech 174-175: 770-773.

19. Inagaki N, Mitsuuchi M (1984) Photoconductive films prepared by glow discharge polymerization. J Polym Sci 22: 301-305.

20. Szmidt J, Gazicki-Lipman M, Szymanowski H, et al. (2003) Electrophysical properties of thin germanium/carbon layers produced on silicon using organometallic radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. Thin Solid Films 441: 192-199.    

21. Sadhir RK, James WJ, Auerbach RA, et al. (1984) Synthesis of organogermanium by glow discharge polymerization. J Appl Polym Sci 38: 99-104.

22. Zhu JQ, Jiang CZ, Han JC, et al. (2012) Optical and electrical properties of nonstoichiometric a-Ge1-xCx films prepared by magnetron co-sputtering. Appl Surf Sci 258:3877-3881.    

23. Mahmood A, Shah A, Castillon FF, et al. (2011) Surface analysis of GeC prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition technique. Curr Appl Phys 11:547-550.    

24. Schrader JS, Huguenin-Love JL, Soukup RJ, et al. (2006) Thin films of GeC deposited using a unique hollow cathode sputtering technique. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 90: 2338-2345.    

25. Yashiki Y, Miyajima S, Yamada A, et al. (2006) Deposition and characterization of mu c-Ge1-xCx thin films grown by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition using organo-germane. Thin Solid Films 501: 202-205.    

26. Hu CQ, Zheng WT, Tian HW, (2006) Effects of the chemical bonding on the optical and mechanical properties for germanium carbide films used as antireflection and protection coating of ZnS windows. J Phys: Condens Matter 18: 4231-4241.    

27. Li YP, Li J, Wang N, et al. (2014) Optical and structural properties of co-sputtered Ge1 - xCx thin films as a function of the substrate temperature. Thin Solid Films 551: 74-78.    

28. Wu X, Zhang W, Y Lanqin, et al. (2008) The deposition and optical properties of Ge1-xCx thin film and infrared multilayer antireflection coatings. Thin Solid Films 516: 3189-3195.    

29. Li YP, Liu Z, Zhao H, et al. (2009) Infrared transmission properties of germanium carbon thin films deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. Vacuum 83: 965-969.    

30. Saito N, Iwata H, Nakaaki I, et al. (2009) Amorphous and microcrystalline GeC:H films prepared by magnetron sputtering. Physica Status Solidi (a) 206: 238-242.    

31. Mahmood A, Shah A, Castillon FF, et al. (2011)Surface analysis of GeC prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition technique. Curr Appl Phys 11: 547-550

32. Antoniotti P, Benzi P, Castiglioni M, et al. (1992) Studies on the solid obtained from radiolysis of germane methane mixtures. Chem Mater 4: 717-720.    

33. Benzi P, Castiglioni M, Volpe P (1994) α-GeC precursors obtained by radiolysis of GeH4-hydrocarbon mixtures. J Mater Chem 4: 1067-1070.    

34. Antoniotti P, Benzi P, Castiglioni M, et al. (1996) Radiolysis of binary systems containing germanium and carbon hydrides. Radiat Phys Chem 48: 457-462.    

35. Benzi P, Castiglioni M, Truffa E, et al. (1996) Thin film deposition of GexCyHz by radiolysis of GeH4-C3H8 mixtures. J Mater Chem 6: 1507-1509.    

36. Antoniotti P, Benzi P, Castiglioni M, et al. (1999) An experimental and theoretical study of gaseous products in the radiolysis of germane/ethylene mixtures. Eur J Inorg Chem 323-332.

37. Benzi P, Castiglioni M, Volpe P (2001) Characterisation and properties of amorphous nonstoichiometric Ge1-xCx:H compounds obtained from X-ray radiolysis of germane/ethylene mixtures. Eur J Inorg Chem 1235-1242.

38. Benzi P, Bottizzo E, Operti L, et al. (2002) Amorphous germanium carbides by radiolysis-CVD of germane/ethyne systems: Preparation and reaction mechanisms. Chem Mater 14: 2506-2513.    

39. Benzi P, Bottizzo E, Operti L, et al. (2004) Characterization and properties of amorphous nonstoichiometric Ge1-xCx:H compounds obtained by radiolysis-CVD of germane/ethyne systems. Chem Mater 216: 1068-1074.

40. Benzi P, Bottizzo E, Demaria C (2006) Characterization and properties of Ge1-xCx:H compounds obtained by X-ray CVD of germane/ethyne systems: Effect of the irradiation dose. Chem Vapor Depos 12: 25-32.    

41. Benzi P, Bottizzo E, Demaria C, et al. (2007) Amorphous nonstoichiometric Ge1-xCx:H compounds obtained by radiolysis-chemical vapor deposition of germane/ethyne or germane/allene systems: A bonding and microstructure investigation performed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. J Appl Phys 101: 124906.    

42. Demaria C, Benzi P, Arrais A, et al. (2013) Growth and thermal annealing of amorphous germanium carbide obtained by X-ray chemical vapor deposition. J Mat Sci 48: 6357-6366.    

43. Arrais A, Benzi P, Bottizzo E, et al. (2007) Characterization of hydrogenated amorphous germanium compounds obtained by x-ray chemical vapor deposition of germane: Effect of the irradiation dose on optical parameters and structural order. J Appl Phys 102:104905.    

44. Arrais A, Benzi P, Bottizzo E, et al. (2009) Correlations among hydrogen bonding configuration, structural order and optical coefficients in hydrogenated amorphous germanium obtained by x-ray-activated chemical vapour deposition. J Phys D Appl Phys 42:105406.    

45. Chew K, Rusli, Yoon SF, et al. (2002) Hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide deposition using electron cyclotron40] resonance chemical vapor deposition under high microwave power and strong hydrogen dilution. J Appl Phys 92: 2937-2941.    

46. Gazicki M, Schalko J, Olcaytug F, et al. (1994) Study on electromagnetron for plasma polymerization. 2. Magnetic-field enhanced radio-frequency plasma deposition of organogermanium films from tetraethylgermanium. J Vac Sci Technol A12 345-353

47. Taga K, Hamada S, Fukui H, et al. (2002) Vibrational spectra and density functional study of propylgermane. J Mol Struct 610: 85-97.    

48. Rübel H, Schröder B, Fuhs, W, et al. (1987) IR spectroscopy and structure of RF magnetron sputtered a-SiC-H films. Phys Stat Sol 139: 131-143

49. Cardona M (1983) Vibrational Spectra of Hydrogen in Silicon and Germanium. Phys Stat Sol 118:463-481.    

50. Bellamy LJ (1975) The Infrared Spectra of Complex Molecules, 3rd ed. Chapman and Hall, London 13-36.

51. Schrader B (1995) Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, VCH, Weinheim, 192-195.

52. Gharbi R, Fathallah M, Alzaied N, et al. (2008) Hydrogen and nitrogen effects on optical and structural properties of amorphous carbon. Mat Sci Eng C 28: 795-798.    

53. Robertson J (1986) Amorphous-carbon. Adv Phys 35: 317-374.    

54. Akaoglu B, Sel K, Atilgan I, et al. (2008) Carbon content influence on the optical constants of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon alloys. Opt Mat 30: 1257-1267.    

55. Lucovsky G (1985) Local bonding of hydrogen in a-Si H, a-Ge H and a-Si, Ge H alloy-films. J Non-Cryst Solids 76, 173-186.

56. Ley L (1984) The Physic of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon II, Springer-Verlag, New York, Chap.3, 61-161.

57. Tauc J (1974) Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Plenum, London and New York Chap. 4,159-220.

58. Mott NF, Davis EA (1979) Electronic Process in Non-Crystalline Materials, 2nd ed. Clarendon Press. Oxford, 287-318.

59. Masuda A, Kumeda M, Shimizu T (1991) Relationship between photodarkening and light-induced ESR in amorphous Ge-S films alloyed with lead. Jpn J Appl Phys 30: L1075.    

60. Lide DR (1997-1998) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 78th ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton and New York.

61. Robertson J (1992) The electronic and atomic structure of hydrogenated amorphous Si-C alloys. Phil Mag B 66: 615-638.    

62. Mihailova T, Toneva A (1995) Effect of the gas pressure during deposition on the optical properties of HOMOCVD a-Si:H thin films. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 36: 1-9.    

Copyright Info: © 2015, Paola Benzi, Chiara Demaria, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved