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High-capacity reversible data hiding in encrypted images based on two-phase histogram shifting

Kaimeng Chen and Chin-Chen Chang

*Corresponding author: Chin-Chen Chang alan3c@gmail.com


With the extensive use of cloud services in different applications, it’s a problem for the cloud service provider to manage or process the privacy data that are encrypted by the content owner. Therefore, signal processing technology in the encrypted domain has attracted the attention of researchers. In this paper, we propose a new reversible data hiding method for encrypted images based on two-phase histogram shifting. In the proposed method, the original image is encrypted by using special image division and additive homomorphic encryption. After image encryption, the encrypted image can partially maintain spatial correlation for data embedding while the content security of the encrypted image is ensured. Due to the spatial correlation, the data hider can generate two difference histograms from the encrypted image, which provide high embedding capacity. A two-phase histogram shift scheme is used to embed the secret data into the two difference histograms. At the receiver side, the secret data can be extracted from the encrypted image or the decrypted image, and the image can be recovered to its original version without any error. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method can efficiently improve the capacity of data embedding and outperform other related methods, while the visual quality of the marked image can be maintained.

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