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2D CFD description of the kinematic effects of movable inlet and outlet die wall transport motion and punch shape geometry on the dynamics of viscous flow during ECAE through Segal 2θ-dies for a range of channel angles

Alexander V. Perig Nikolai N. Golodenko

*Corresponding author: Alexander V. Perig olexander.perig@gmail.com


Minimization of the dead zone (DZA) in the process of material forming is a materials science problem. Geometric and kinematic approaches to the minimization of the DZA during Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) have been proposed, developed, analyzed, and documented. The present article is focused on a 2D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) description of the kinematic effects of punch shape geometry and inlet (IDW) and outlet (ODW) die wall motion on the DZA during ECAE of Viscous Incompressible Continuum (VIC) through a Segal 2θ-die for a range of channel angles 60° ≤ 2θ ≤ 135°. Due attention has been given to the independent alternating transport motions of the IDW and ODW. Punch shape geometry and the kinematic modes of IDW and ODW motions for DZA minimization have been determined with a numerical solution of the boundary value problem for the Navier-Stokes equations in curl transfer form for VIC. Experimental verification was accomplished with an introduction of initial circular gridlines-based physical simulation techniques. For the first time, experimental verification of CFD-derived results was made through an additional superposition of empirically-derived digital photos with deformed elliptical gridlines in the channel intersection deformation zones and correspondent 2D numerical plots with CFD-derived flow lines and full flow velocities. An empirical DZA localization was experimentally determined as the location of minimally-deformed near circular markers. The computational DZA localization was numerically determined as a flow-lines-free zone (the first hypothesis) or as a zone with near-zero values of full flow velocities (the second hypothesis). The relative DZA was estimated as a ratio of the measured DZA with respect to the area of the deformation zone in the channel intersection region. A good agreement was obtained between DZA values obtained with the first hypothesis and experimental results.

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