Physiological and pharmacological properties of coffee and coffee components

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Guest Editors
Prof. Daglia Maria
Dept. of Drug Sciences,University of Pavia,Via Taramelli 12,27100 Pavia - ITALY
Email: maria.daglia@unipv.it

Prof. Roseane Santos
Dep. Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy,709 Mall Boulevard, Office 341
Savannah, GA. 31406.
Email: rsantos@southuniversity.edu

Manuscript Topics
More than one billion people start their day by drinking a cup of coffee, making it the most popular drink worldwide, after water and tea.

Coffee industry is the second in the worldwide economy, after oil. Coffee, as many people thought decades ago, is not only caffeine. Caffeine is only a minor part (0.5–2.0%) of a handful of bioactive compounds found in properly roasted coffee, which includes the following components: 1) antioxidants chlorogenic acids (CGA); 2) powerful lactones (also known as quinides) formed from the CGA after proper roasting; 3) vitamin PP or niacin; 4) minerals (potassium, iron, zinc), among others. Moreover, coffee when is brewed releases nearly thousand volatiles that create its distinct and pleasurable aroma. The enjoyable effect on smell is caused by stimulation of the reward system at the mesolimbic network of pleasure. The aroma has also impact on other areas of the brain, such as the one involved in social behavior, which may explain why coffee is a unique socializing beverage.

The fruit of the coffee tree is a red berry that contains the beans. The most important species are arabica (Coffea arabica) and robusta (Coffea canephora var. robusta). The coffee that we buy is normally composed of a mix of those two species with a varying percentage determined by the cupping process, a technique used by the cuppers to evaluate coffee aroma and flavor profile of the green beans. The two species vary in the percentage of their constituents and consequently a blend of the two will present a special taste and aroma that characterizes the brand.

The geographical origin of beans, the roasting process, and brewing methods influence the complexity of the final amount of bioactive compounds present in the coffee beans. Such rich composition is still labeled just as ‘coffee’. This is one of the main reasons why many studies involving quantization of coffee (just in terms of cups and/or average percentage of caffeine present in the coffee) have showed controversial results, by not determining the type(s) of coffee administered to volunteers/patients during the data collection.

In the light of the current knowledge, we could go even further and look for the actual biomolecules that are involved in the various responses potentially beneficial or toxic due to coffee consumption. Meaning to actually consider if metabolites from those various compounds present in coffee and formed after coffee intake; could be the real responsible ones for the coffee effects on human health.

This special issue on chemical composition and physiological and pharmacological properties of coffee and coffee components is devoted to bring some light to this very interesting theme by gathering the results from the latest publications on this topic.

Paper submission
All manuscripts will be peer-reviewed before their acceptance for publication.
The deadline for manuscript submission is 28th February, 2016.

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Yenisetti SC, Muralidhara
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