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Cholera toxin phage: structural and functional diversity between Vibrio cholerae biotypes

1 School of Environment and Life Sciences, Independent University, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2 Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, School of Health and Life Sciences, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Cholera is a severe form of watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae toxigenic strains. Typically, the toxigenic variants of V. cholerae harbor a bacteriophage, cholera toxin phage, integrated in their genome. The ctxAB genes from the phage genome encode the cholera toxin, which is responsible for the major clinical symptoms of the disease. Although ctxAB genes are crucial to V. cholerae strains for cholera manifestation, the genetic structure of cholera toxin phage, DNA sequence of its genes, spatial organization in the host genome and its satellite phage content are not homogenous between V. cholerae biotypes—classical and El Tor. Differences in cholera toxin phage and its genes play a significant role in the identification of V. cholerae biotypes and in the understanding of their pathogenic and epidemic potentials. Here, we present an account of the variations of cholera toxin phage and its genes in V. cholerae biotypes as well as their usefulness in the identification of classical and El Tor strains.
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Keywords Vibrio cholerae; classical; El Tor; cholera toxin phage; cholera toxin; cholera; RS1; ctxA; ctxB; rstR

Citation: Ashrafus Safa, Jinath Sultana Jime, Farishta Shahel. Cholera toxin phage: structural and functional diversity between Vibrio cholerae biotypes. AIMS Microbiology, 2020, 6(2): 144-151. doi: 10.3934/microbiol.2020009

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