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Impact of Physical Activity on Frailty Status and How to Start a Semiological Approach to Muscular System

Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Special Issues: Activity and Lifestyle factors in the elderly: Its relationship with Degenerative diseases and Depression

Introduction: The world population is aging, and this demographic fact is associated with an increased prevalence of sedentary lifestyles, sarcopenia and frailty; all of them with impact on health status. Biologic reserve determination in the elderly with comorbidity poses a challenge for medical activities. Frailty is an increasingly used concept in the geriatric medicine literature, which refers to an impairment in biologic reserve. There is a close and multidirectional relationship between physical activity, the muscular system function, and a fit status; decline in this dimensions is associated with poor outcomes. The aim of this article is to make a narrative review on the relationship between physical activity, sarcopenia and frailty syndrome. Results: The low level of physical activity, sarcopenia and frailty, are important predictors for development of disability, poor quality of life, falls, hospitalizations and all causes mortality. For clinical practice we propose a semiological approach based on measurement of muscle performance, mass and also level of physical activity, as a feasible way to determine the biologic reserve. This evidence shows us that the evaluation of muscle mass and performance, provides important prognostic information because the deterioration of these variables is associated with poor clinical outcomes in older adults followed up in multiple cohorts. Conclusions: Low activity is a mechanism and at the same time part of the frailty syndrome. The determination of biologic reserve is important because it allows the prognostic stratification of the patient and constitutes an opportunity for intervention. The clinician should be aware of the clinical tools that evaluate muscular system and level of physical activity, because they place us closer to the knowledge of health status.
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Keywords elderly; muscular system; sarcopenia; frailty; physical activity

Citation: Maximiliano Smietniansky, Bruno R. Boietti, Mariela A. Cal, María E. Riggi, Giselle P.Fuccile, Luis A. Camera, Gabriel D. Waisman. Impact of Physical Activity on Frailty Status and How to Start a Semiological Approach to Muscular System. AIMS Medical Science, 2016, 3(1): 52-60. doi: 10.3934/medsci.2016.1.52


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