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Clusters of alcohol abstainers and drinkers incorporating motives against drinking: a random survey of 18 to 34 year olds in four cities in four different continents

1 Population Research and Outcome Studies, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
2 School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
3 Center for Health Education, PR Ministry of Health, China
4 Department of Epidemiology, Federal Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Russia
5 ProHumanitas Foundation, Uruguay
6 Population Research and Outcome Studies, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
7 Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
8 Department of Behavioural Sciences, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin−Nigeria

Objective: The aim of this analysis was to identify alcohol consumption clusters for adolescents and early adults according to attitudes to drinking, motivations against drinking and perceptions associated with alcohol. Method: Interviews were undertaken with people aged 18–34 years old living in four cities in different regions of the world. Multistage random sampling was consistent across the four cities (Ilorin (Nigeria), Wuhan (China), Montevideo (Uruguay) and Moscow (Russia)). The questionnaire was forward and back translated into relevant languages and face-to-face interviewing undertaken. The data were weighted to the population of each city. In total 6235 structured interviews were undertaken (1391 in Ilorin, 1600 in Montevideo, 1604 in Moscow and 1640 in Wuhan). Questions regarding motivation against alcohol consumption (14 items), assessing perceptions (3 items) and attitudes to drinking in certain situations (8 items) were asked of all respondents including abstainers. Factor analysis was initially undertaken to identify highly related correlated variables. Results: Cluster analysis provided a variety of clusters (Ilorin (3 clusters), Montevideo (5), Moscow (4) and Wuhan (4)). At least one cluster in each city was dominated by abstainers and another by heavy episodic drinkers. Variations by city and alcohol consumption patterns existed in regards to variables included. Conclusion: This analysis detailed the city specific motivations against drinking alcohol, and the attitudes towards alcohol consumption. Differences highlight the influence of country/city specific culture, customs, laws, societal norms and traditions.
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