Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Barriers of Female Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Cancer Screening Among American Indians—Where to Intervene?

1 Department of Geography & Environmental Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA
2 Community Health Department, The Great Plains Tribal Chairmen’s Health Board, Rapid City, South Dakota 57702, USA

Special Issues: Cancer screening in hard-to-reach populations

Female breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer are three common cancers among people in the United States. Both their incidence and mortality rates can be dramatically reduced if effective prevention and intervention programs are developed and implemented, because these cancers are preventable through regular screenings. American Indians in the United States especially in the Northern Plains have a disproportionally high burden of these cancers. As a hard-to-reach population group, less attention has been paid to American Indians regarding cancer screening compared with other population groups. This study examined barriers experienced by American Indians residing in South Dakota regarding three cancer sites: female breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer through a community-based survey. A total of 199 participants were recruited and factors significantly associated with cancer screening included knowledge about cancer screening, geographic access to PCPs, encouragement by doctors, as well as socioeconomic barriers. Meanwhile, integrating geographic access, socioeconomic deprivation, and geographic distribution of American Indians, the study identified geographic areas of low access to cancer screening where hard-to-reach populations resided. Results from the study will provide crucial information for the development of targeted intervention programs to increase the acceptability and uptake of cancer screening among American Indians.
  Article Metrics


1. American Cancer Society (2016) Cancer Facts & Figures 2016. Cancer Facts Fig 1-9.

2. Nelson HD, Tyne K, Naik A, et al. (2009) Screening for breast cancer: an update for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 151: 727-737.    

3. Sasieni P, Castanon A, Cuzick J (2009) Effectiveness of cervical screening with age: population based case-control study of prospectively recorded data. BMJ 339: b2968.    

4. Cotterchio M, Manno M, Klar N, et al. (2005) Colorectal screening is associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk: a case–control study within the population-based Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry. Cancer Causes Control 16: 865-875.    

5. White MC, Espey DK, Swan J, et al. (2014) Disparities in Cancer Mortality and Incidence Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States. Am J Public Health 104: S377-S387.    

6. Kanekar S, Petereit D (2009) Walking forward: a program designed to lower cancer mortality rates among American Indians in western South Dakota. S D J Med 62: 151-153, 155-157, 159.

7. Lavelle B, Larsen MD, Gundersen C (2009) Research Synthesis Strategies for Surveys of American Indians. Public Opin Q 73.

8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012) Cancer screening-United States, 2010. MMWR. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61: 41.

9. Pandhi N, Guadagnolo BA, Kanekar S, et al. (2010) Cancer Screening in Native Americans from the Northern Plains. Am J Prev Med 38: 389-395.    

10. Rogers D, Petereit DG (2005) Cancer disparities research partnership in lakota country: Clinical trials, patient services, and community education for the oglala, rosebud, and cheyenne river sioux tribes. Am J Public Health 95: 2129-2132.    

11. Schmidt-Grimminger D, Frerichs L, Bird AEB, et al. (2013) HPV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescents, Parents, Young Adults, and Health Professionals. J Cancer Educ 28: 357-366.    

12. Schumacher MC, Slattery ML, Lanier AP, et al. (2008) Prevalence and predictors of cancer screening among American Indian and Alaska native people: The EARTH study. Cancer Causes Control 19: 725-737.    

13. Subrahmanian K, Petereit DG, Kanekar S, et al. (2011) Community-Based Participatory Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Cancer Screening Educational Intervention among American Indians in the Northern Plains. J Cancer Educ 26: 530-539.    

14. Towne SD, Smith ML, Ory MG (2014) Geographic variations in access and utilization of cancer screening services: examining disparities among American Indian and Alaska Native Elders. Int J Health Geogr 13: 18.    

15. Leyva M, Byrd T, Tarwater P (2006) Attitudes towards cervical cancer screening: a study of beliefs among women in Mexico. Calif J Health Promot 4: 13-24.

16. Lin Y, Wimberly MC (2016) Geographic Variations of Colorectal and Breast Cancer Late-Stage Diagnosis and the Effects of Neighborhood-Level Factors. J Rural Health http://doi.org/10.1111/jrh.12179.

17. BRFSS (The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System) (2014) 2014 BRFSS Survey Data and Documentation. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/annual_data/annual_2014.html.

18. Sanderson PR, Weinstein N, Teufel-Shone N, et al. (2011) Assessing colorectal cancer screening knowledge at tribal fairs. Prev Chronic Dis 8: A16.

19. Teufel-Shone N, Cordova-Marks F, Susanyatame G, et al. (2015) Documenting Cancer Information Seeking Behavior and Risk Perception in the Hualapai Indian Community to Inform a Community Health Program. J Community Health 40: 891-898.    

20. Wilson RT, Giroux J, Kasicky KR, et al. (2011) Breast and cervical cancer screening patterns among American Indian women at IHS clinics in Montana and Wyoming. Public Health Rep 126: 806-815.

21. Zhan FB, Lin Y (2014) Racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities of cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis in Texas. Women's Health Issues 24: 519-527.    

Copyright Info: © 2016, Yan Lin, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved