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Choropleth Mapping of Cervical Cancer Screening in South Africa Using Healthcare Facility-level Data from the National Laboratory Network

1 Right to Care, Johannesburg, South Africa
2 Clinical HIV Research Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
3 Cytology Unit, Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand
4 National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
5 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

Special Issues: Cancer screening in hard-to-reach populations

Background: In South Africa, cervical cancer remains among the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer death. Co-infection with HIV increases the risk of developing cervical pre-cancer and cancer. We analysed National Health Laboratory Service cervical cytology data to investigate geographic variations of Pap smear coverage, quality, and high grade lesions. Methods: Facility-level data were extracted from the NHLS for April 2013–March 2014. We present results and choropleth maps detailing coverage, adequacy and high-grade Pap smear cytology abnormalities defined as Pap smears suspicious for invasive carcinoma, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) or atypical squamous cells: cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H). Results: 4,562 facilities submitted 791,067 cytology slides. The interquartile range (IQR) for Pap smear coverage among HIV-infected women was 26–41%; similar to coverage in women aged 30 and older (IQR: 26–42%). 6/52 districts had adequacy rates above the national standard (70%) and 2/52 districts had adequacy rates below 35%. We observed marked variation in Pap smear abnormalities across the country, with the proportion of high-grade cytology abnormalities ≥0.3% in 17/52 districts.Conclusion: Using district-level choropleth maps, we are able to display variations in Pap smear coverage, quality, and results across South Africa. This approach may be used to improve resource allocation, achieving better equity in cervical cancer prevention.
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Keywords cervical cancer screening; choropleth map; Pap smear; High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL); South Africa

Citation: Caroline B T Makura, Kathryn Schnippel, Pamela Michelow, Carla J. Chibwesha, Bridgette Goeieman, Suzette Jordaan, Cynthia Firnhaber. Choropleth Mapping of Cervical Cancer Screening in South Africa Using Healthcare Facility-level Data from the National Laboratory Network. AIMS Public Health , 2016, 3(4): 849-862. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2016.4.849


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Copyright Info: 2016, Caroline B T Makura, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

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