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A CAP for Healthy LivingMainstreaming Health into the EU Common Agricultural Policy
European Public Health Alliance (EPHA), 2015

Special Issues: Health and Wealth, inequality and health status, public health nutrition: the major challenges to creating a healthier world

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References

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3. Also, in the past nutrient recommendation for protein intake, especially animal protein, was around twice as high as it is today, see for instance: J. Périssé (1981) Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation on Energy and Protein Requirements [online].

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58. Article 39 CMO Regulation

59. Articles 45 to 52 of the CMO Regulation

60. Article 44 CMO Regulation referring to Annex VI

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62. Article 45 CMO Regulation

63. European Court of Auditors (2014) Is the EU investment and promotion support to the wine sector well managed and are its results on the competitiveness of EU wines demonstrated? [online]

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65. European Court of Auditors (2014) Is the EU investment and promotion support to the wine sector well managed and are its results on the competitiveness of EU wines demonstrated? [online]

66. Articles 48 and 49 CMO Regulation

67. Articles 47 CMO Regulation

68. Articles 52 CMO Regulation

69. For more on the effects of the previous distillation support regimes: Schäfer Elinder (2003) Public health aspects of the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Developments and recommendations for change in four sectors: Fruit and vegetables, dairy, wine and tobacco. National Institute of Public Health, Sweden.

70. European Commission (2002) Ex-post evaluation of the CMO for wine, Chapter 5. Distillation. [online]

71. Article 46 CMO Regulation

72. European Court of Auditors (2012) The reform of the common organisation of the market in wine: progress to date. [online]

73. Giulia Meloni et al. (2015) L'Histoire se repete. Why the liberalization of the EU vineyard planting rights regime may require another French Revolution. Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance. Catholic University of Leuven. [online]

74. European Court of Auditors (2012) The reform of the common organisation of the market in wine: progress to date. [online]

75. Giulia Meloni et al. (2015) L'Histoire se repete. Why the liberalization of the EU vineyard planting rights regime may require another French Revolution. Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance. Catholic University of Leuven. [online]

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79. Deloitte, LEI Wageningen, Arcadia International (2009) Evaluation of the CAP measures relating to hops. [online]

80. Article 52 Direct Payments Regulation

81. European Commission. Infographic: Tobacco in the EU. online. In the past tobacco was also quite widely used in medicinal applications. See: Anne Charlton (2004) Medicinal uses of tobacco in history, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, [online].

82. Anna Gilmore et al. (2004) Tobacco-control policy in the European Union in: Eric Feldman et al. (ed) (2004) Unfiltered: Conflicts Over Tobacco Policy and Public Health. Harvard University Press.

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86. Joy Townsend (1991) Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy. BMJ Clinical Research. [online]

87. COGEA (2009) Evaluation of the CAP measures relating to the raw tobacco sector Synopsis. [online]

88. Article 52 Direct Payments Regulation

89. Under Article 68 of Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2009. The scheme runs until 2014. See: European Commission Answer to a written MEP question by Brian Hayes (E-005093-15). [online]

90. See discussion below under the section: “Towards forward-looking direct payments”.

91. As the principle of decoupled payments applies, it may no longer be possible to identify a tobacco farmer according to the documentation submitted to payment authorities. A separate question should therefore be included on whether the applicant cultivates tobacco. In case of fraud all granted support should be returned accompanied by an administrative penalty.

92. WHO (2015) WHO calls on countries to reduce sugars intake among adults and children. [online]

93. WHO (2015) Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children. [online]

94. For instance cardiovascular disease: Q. Yang et.al. (2014) Added sugar intake and cardiovascular disease mortality among US adults. JAMA Intern Med. [online]

95. UCLA Newsroom (2012) This is your brain on sugar: UCLA study shows high-fructose diet sabotages learning, memory. [online]

96. Arthur Westover et.al. (2002) A cross-national relationship between sugar consumption and major depression? Depression and Anxiety. [online]

97. Emory Health Sciences (2014) High-fructose diet in adolescence may exacerbate depressive-like behaviour. Science Daily. [online]

98. European Commission (1978), Commission Communication Future development of the Common Agricultural Policy. [online]

99. Emilie Aguirre et al. (2015) Liberalising agricultural policy for sugar in Europe risks damaging public health. [online]

100. ""Allison Burell et al. (2014) EU sugar policy: A sweet transition after 2015? Joint Research Centre. online. Restructuring of the sugar sector in 2006 also lead to a strong centralisation of sugar production and processing with many factory closings in countries like Poland and Italy. Much of the sugar processing is now concentrated, which drops a shadow over regional and rural development objectives.

101. Article 124 and further and Article 232 CMO Regulation

102. European Commission (2014) Prospects for EU agricultural markets and income 2014-2024. [online]

103. Allison Burell et al. (2014) EU sugar policy: A sweet transition after 2015? Joint Research Centre. [online]

104. Alan Mathews (2014) EU beet sugar prices to fall by 22-23% when quotas eliminated. CAPreform.eu. [online]

105. C. Bonnet et al. (2011) Does the EU sugar policy reform increase added sugar consumption? An empirical evidence on the soft drink market. Health Economics. [online]

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109. Allison Burell et al. (2014) EU sugar policy: A sweet transition after 2015? Joint Research Centre. [online]

110. Article 52 Direct payments Regulation

111. European Commission (2014) The CAP towards 2020, Implementation of the new system of direct payments. MS notifications. [online]

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123. Article 52 Direct payments Regulation

124. Article 53 Direct payments Regulation

125. 15% from all net ceilings added up. See Annex III Direct payments Regulation.

126. European Commission. EU Draft Budget for 2016. online. Budget lines starting from code 05.

127. Alan Mathews (2015) Two steps forward, one step back: coupled payments in the CAP. CAPreform.eu. [online]

128. European Commission (2014) The CAP towards 2020. Implementation of the new system of direct payments. MS notifications. [online]. Promoting protein crop production in Europe can however be considered positive as a way to replace soy import from South America.

129. European Court of Auditors (2012) Suckler cow and ewe and goat direct aids under partial implementation of SPS arrangements. online. Both these schemes expired in 2014 together with Regulation (EC) No 73/2009 on direct support schemes for farmers under the common agricultural policy.

130. Article 52(8) Direct payment Regulation

131. Article 26 CMO Regulation and further

132. European Parliament Procedure File 2014/0014 COD. Aid scheme for the supply of fruit and vegetables, bananas and milk in the educational establishments. online. See also: Text adopted in EP Plenary on 27 May. [online]

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135. FAO. Food-based dietary guidelines, Food guidelines by country. online. . For criticism on reduced fat milk see for instance: David Ludwig et al. (2011) Three daily servings of reduced-fat milk - an evidence based recommendation? JAMA Pediatrics. [online]

136. Articles 11 and 16 CMO Regulation

137. Article 17 CMO Regulation

138. European Commission (2015) Private storage in the pig meat sector. [online]

139. European Commission Press release (2015) Safety net measures for dairy, fruit and vegetables to be extended. [online]

140. Article 196 CMO Regulation

141. Article 219 CMO Regulation. See also: Alan Mathews (2013) The end of export subsidies? CAPreform.eu. [online]

142. Article 220 CMO Regulation

143. European Parliament Resolution of 7 July 2015 on prospects for the EU dairy sector - review of the implementation of the Dairy Package online. See also: European Parliament News (2015) End of milk quotas: “Opportunities to build a more confident and robust dairy sector”. [online]

144. Euractiv (2014) Moscow pork embargo causes havoc in Brussels. [online]

145. AHDB Dairy (2015) EU Farmgate milk prices. [online]

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147. See for instance: VILT.be (2015) Landbouworganisaties komen met gemeeschappelijke eisen. online. A coalition of Belgian farmers' organizations demands what farmers really want i.e. fair prices.

148. Aileen Robertson et al. (ed) (2004) Food and health in Europe: a new basis for action. WHO Europe. [online]

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159. Article 23 CMO Regulation and further

160. European Parliament Procedure File 2014/0014 COD. Aid scheme for the supply of fruit and vegetables, bananas and milk in the educational establishments. online. See also: Text adopted in EP Plenary on 27 May. [online]

161. See for instance: Joint Open letter: Save the EU School Fruit Scheme: ‘Better Regulation' cannot go against the wellbeing of European children (2015). [online]

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163. AFC Management Consulting (2012) Evaluation of the European School Fruit Scheme - Final report. For the European Commission. [online]

164. Processed fruits and vegetables are allowed but without added sugar, added fat, added salt, added sweeteners and/or artificial flavour enhancers (artificial food additive codes E620-E650)

165. European Parliament Policy Study (2011) The EU Fruit and vegetables sector: overview and post-2013 CAP perspective. [online]

166. Article 32 CMO Regulation and further

167. European Commission. EU Draft Budget for 2016. online. Budget lines starting with code 05.

168. European Parliament Policy Study (2015) Towards new rules for the EU's fruit and vegetables sector. [online]

169. Schäfer Elinder (2003) Public health aspects of the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Developments and recommendations for change in four sectors: Fruit and vegetables, dairy, wine and tobacco. National Institute of Public Health, Sweden

170. Lennert Veerman et al. (2005) The European Common Agricultural Policy on fruits and vegetables: exploring potential health gain from reform. European Journal of Public Health. [online]

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176. Jos Bijman (2015) Towards new rules for the EU's fruit and vegetables sector. European Parliament policy study. [online]

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179. European Parliament resolution of 7 July 2015 on the fruit and vegetables sector since the 2007 reform. [online]

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183. Anne-Marie Mayer (1997) Historical changes in the mineral content of fruits and vegetables. British Food Journal. [online]

184. Aileen Robertson et al. (ed) (2004) Food and health in Europe: a new basis for action. WHO Europe. [online]

185. See: Directive 2009/128/EC establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides. [online]

186. European Commission (2015) Annex Promotion on the internal market and in third countries. online. See also: European Commission Press release (2015) The Commission approves new promotion programmes for agricultural products. [online]

187. European Commission (2014) Formal adoption of new EU promotion rules for agricultural products. [online]

188. European Commission (2015) The new promotion policy. Synoptic presentation. [online]

189. Regulation (EU) No 1144/2014 on information provision and promotion measures. [online]

190. Graph: European Commission (2013) Overview of CAP Reform 2014-2020. online. First pillar funding amount is in current prices.

191. European Commission DG AGRI (2011) The Future of CAP Direct Payments. [online]

192. Article 25 and further Direct Payments Regulation

193. European Parliament Policy Study (2015) Implementation of the First Pillar of the CAP 2014-2020 in the EU Member States. [online]

194. European Commission DG AGRI (2013) CAP reform - an explanation of the main elements. [online]

195. Article 36 Direct Payments Regulation

196. Article 21 Direct Payments Regulation

197. See for instance: Alan Mathews (2009) How decoupled is the single farm payment? CAPreform.eu. [online]

198. The Economist (2005) Europe's farm follies. [online]

199. European Parliament Policy Study (2015) Extent of Land Grabbing in the EU. [online]

200. Article 41 and further Direct payments Regulation

201. Article 61 and further Direct payments Regulation

202. Article 11 Direct payments Regulation

203. European Commission DG AGRI (2013) Structure and dynamics of EU farms: changes, trends and policy relevance. [online]

204. European Commission (2010) Does population decline lead to economic decline in EU rural regions? [online]

205. The Economist (2015) Rural France. Village croissant. [online]

206. WHO Europe (2012) Addressing the social determinants of health: the urban dimension and the role of local government [online]

207. John Bryden et al. (2004) Rural development and food policy in Europe. In: London School of Economics and Political Science. Eurohealth issue: Integrating Public Health with European food and agricultural policy. [online]

208. European Parliament Policy Study (2015) Towards new rules for the EU's fruit and vegetables sector. [online]

209. Article 5 Direct payments Regulation referring to Regulation (EU) online. which contains the list of cross-compliance measures in Annex II

210. European Council of the European Union. Simplification of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). [online]

211. Article 43 and further Direct payments Regulation

212. Directive 2009/128/EC establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides

213. Recital 2 Rural development Regulation

214. European Commission (2013) Overview of CAP Reform 2014-2020. [online]. In current prices. Rural development measures, unlike direct payments or market measures, are co-financed by Member States.

215. Article 13 and further Rural development Regulation

216. Joris Aertsen et.al. (2013) Valuing the carbon sequestration potential for European agriculture. Land Use Policy. [online]

217. FAO (2013) Advancing agroforestry on the policy agenda. [online]

218. European Commission (2014) Investment support under Rural Development Policy. online. Implementation of the First Pillar of the CAP 2014-2020 in the EU Member States

219. European Court of Auditors (2014) Special report no 23/2014: Errors in rural development spending: what are the causes, and how are they being addressed? [online]

220. Article 14 Direct payments Regulation. See also: Wageningen University, IEEP (2009) Study on the impact of modulation. [online]

221. European Parliament Policy Study (2015) Implementation of the First Pillar of the CAP 2014-2020 in the EU Member States. [online]

222. FAO (2012) Sustainable diets and biodiversity. Directions and solutions for policy research and action. Proceedings of International Scientific Symposium. [online]

223. European Commission (2011) Evaluation of effects of direct support on farmers' incomes. [online]

224. Eurostat. Cross-country comparison of final consumption expenditures on food and housing in 2011. online. In UK and Luxembour the average is below 10%, while in Latvia and Estonia it is near 20% of total expenditure.

225. OECD (2012) Income inequality in the European Union. [online]

226. UCL Institute of Health Equity (2014) Review of social determinants and the health divide in the WHO European Region: final report. WHO Europe. [online]

227. Eurostat data in: Euractiv (2014) One out of four EU citizens at risk of poverty. [online]

228. Aileen Robertson et al. (2007) Obesity and socio-economic groups in Europe: Evidence review and implications for action. Report for European Commission. [online]

229. A. Drewnowski (2009) Obesity, diets and social inequality, Nutrition Reviews, online. See also: WHO (2012) Environmental Health Inequalities in Europe. [online]

230. Belinda Loring et al. (2014) Obesity and inequities Guidance for addressing inequities in overweight and obesity. [online]

231. European Commission (2005) The contribution of health to the economy in the European Union. [online]

232. Lancet Commission on planetary health (2015) Safeguarding human health in the Anthropocene epoch. The Lancet. [online]

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