Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Beyond the Gates: Identifying and Managing Offenders with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Community Probation Services

1 Centre for Mental Health, Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Charing Cross Campus, Imperial College London, Claybrook Centre, 37 Claybrook Road, London W6 8LN, UK;
2 Broadmoor Hospital, Crowthorne, UK;
3 Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK;
4 North London Forensic Service, Barnet, Enfield & Haringey Mental Health Trust, UK;
5 Manygates Clinic, South West Yorkshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, UK;
6 West Yorkshire Probation Trust, UK

Special Issues: Addressing Understudied and Vulnerable Populations and Health Systems

Research has indicated that, compared with the general population, the prevalence of offenders with ADHD in prison is high. The situation for offenders managed in the community by the Probation Service is unknown. This study aimed to bridge the gap in our knowledge by (1) surveying the awareness of probation staff about ADHD and (2) screening the rate of offenders with ADHD managed within the service. In the first study, a brief survey was circulated to offender managers working in 7 Probation Trusts in England and Wales asking them to estimate the prevalence of offenders with ADHD on their caseload, the presenting problems of these offenders and challenges to their management, and the training received on the treatment and management of offenders with ADHD. The survey had a return rate of 11%. Probation staff perceived that 7.6% of their caseload had ADHD and identified this group to have difficulties associated with neuropsychological dysfunction, lifestyle problems and compliance problems. They perceived that these problems hindered meaningful engagement with the service and rehabilitation. Challenges to their management were perceived to be due to both internal processes (motivation and engagement) and external processes (inadequate or inappropriate interventions). Few respondents had received training in the management of offenders with ADHD and most wanted more support. In the second study, a sub-sample of 88 offenders in one Probation Trust completed questionnaires to screen for DSM-IV ADHD in childhood and current symptoms. The screen found an estimated prevalence of 45.45% and 20.51% for childhood and adulthood ADHD respectively and these were strongly associated with functional impairment. Thus probation staff considerably underestimated the likely rate, suggesting there are high rates of under-detection and/or misdiagnosis among offenders with ADHD in their service. The results indicate that screening provisions are needed in probation settings, together with training for staff.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords ADHD; offenders; prevalence; probation; services; community; rehabilitation; crime; neuropsychology

Citation: Young Susan, Gudjonsson Gisli H, Goodwin Emily J, Jotangia Amit, Farooq Romana , Haddrick David, Adamou Marios. Beyond the Gates: Identifying and Managing Offenders with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Community Probation Services. AIMS Public Health , 2014, 1(1): 33-42. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2014.1.33

References

  • 1. Young S, Adamou M, Bolea B, et al. (2011). The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies. BMC Psychiatry, 11:32 http://dx. doi. org/10.
  • 3. Rösler M, Retz W, Retz-Junginger P et al. (2004). Prevalence of attention deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disorders in young male prison inmates. Eur Arch Psy Clin N254:365-371.
  • 4. Young S, Gudjonsson GH, Misch P et al. (2010). Prevalence of ADHD symptoms among youth in a secure facility: the consistency and accuracy of self- and informant-report ratings. J Forensic Psychi Ps 21: 238-246.    
  • 5. Rösler M, Retz W, Yaqoobi K et al. , (2009). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in female offenders: prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial implications. Eur Arch Psy Clin. N 259: 98-105.    
  • 6. Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL et al. , (2007). The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis. Am J Psychiat 164: 942-948.    
  • 7. Simon, V, Czobor P, Balint S. et al. (2007). Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta analysis. Br J Psychiatry 190: 402-409.    
  • 8. Langley K, Fowler T, Ford T et al. (2010). Adolescent clinical outcomes for young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Br J Psychiatry 196: 235-240.    
  • 9. Young S, Wells J, Gudjonsson GH. (2011). Predictors of offending among prisoners: the role of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use. J Psychopharmacology 25: 1524-1532.    
  • 10. Satterfield JH, Faller KJ, Crinella FM et al. (2007). A 30-year prospective follow-up study of hyperactive boys with conduct problems: Adult criminality. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiat46: 601-610.
  • 14. Gudjonsson G H, Wells J, Young S. (2012). Personality Disorders and Clinical Syndromes in ADHD Prisoners. J Attention Disord 16: 305-314.
  • 16. Young S, Gudjonsson GH, Ball S et al. (2003). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in personality disordered offenders and the association with disruptive behavioural problems. J Forensic Psychi Ps 14: 491-505.    
  • 17. Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L et al. (2002). The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 111: 279-289.    
  • 18. Westmoreland P, Gunter T, Loveless P et al. (2010). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in men and women newly committed to prison: clinical characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and quality of life. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 54: 361-377.    
  • 19. Lichtenstein P, Halldner L, Zetterqvist J et al. (2012). Medication for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and criminality. N Engl J Med 367: 2006-1014.    
  • 20. Ginsberg Y, Hirvikoski T, Grann M et al. (2012). Long-term functional outcome in adult prison inmates with ADHD receiving OROS-methylphenidate. Eur Arch Psy Clin. N 262: 705-724.    
  • 21. Ginsberg Y, Lindefors N. (2012) Methylphenidate treatment of adult male prison inmates with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with open-label extension. Br J Psychiatry 200: 68-73.    
  • 23. Seixas M, Weiss M, Muller U. (2012). Systematic review of national and international guidelines on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Psychopharmacol 26: 753-765.    
  • 25. Tong LS, Farrington DP (2006). How effective is the “Reasoning and Rehabilitation” programme in reducing reoffending? A meta-analysis of evaluations in four countries. Psychol Crime Law 12:3-24.
  • 27. Young S, Hopkin G, Perkins D et al. (2013). A controlled trial of a cognitive skills program for personality disordered offenders. J Attention Disorders 17: 598-607.    
  • 28. Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Klein DF et al. (2002). Accuracy of adult recall of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiat 159: 1882-1888.    

 

This article has been cited by

  • 1. Professor Amanda Kirby and Lisette Saunders, Jane McCarthy, Eddie Chaplin, Lisa Underwood, Andrew Forrester, Hannah Hayward, Jessica Sabet, Susan Young, Philip Asherson, Richard Mills, Declan Murphy, Screening and diagnostic assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders in a male prison, Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, 2015, 6, 2, 102, 10.1108/JIDOB-08-2015-0018
  • 2. J. McCarthy, E. Chaplin, L. Underwood, A. Forrester, H. Hayward, J. Sabet, S. Young, P. Asherson, R. Mills, D. Murphy, Characteristics of prisoners with neurodevelopmental disorders and difficulties, Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 2016, 60, 3, 201, 10.1111/jir.12237
  • 3. Susan Young, Gisli Gudjonsson, Prathiba Chitsabesan, Bill Colley, Emad Farrag, Andrew Forrester, Jack Hollingdale, Keira Kim, Alexandra Lewis, Sarah Maginn, Peter Mason, Sarah Ryan, Jade Smith, Emma Woodhouse, Philip Asherson, Identification and treatment of offenders with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the prison population: a practical approach based upon expert consensus, BMC Psychiatry, 2018, 18, 1, 10.1186/s12888-018-1858-9
  • 4. Alexandra Sebastian, Wolfgang Retz, Oliver Tüscher, Daniel Turner, Violent offending in borderline personality disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Neuropharmacology, 2019, 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.03.008

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2014, Young Susan, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved