Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

The skeletal proteome of the brittle star Ophiothrix spiculata identifies C-type lectins and other proteins conserved in echinoderm skeleton formation

Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA

Topical Section: Lectins

Determining the identity and functional role of proteins involved in biomineralization and the formation of skeletons is critical to our understanding of the process. Proteomics has allowed rapid characterization of the proteins occluded within mineralized tissue, but the large numbers of proteins detected makes it difficult to assign the relative importance of each protein. We have taken a comparative approach, examining the skeletal proteome of different species of echinoderms in order to identify the proteins that are conserved and likely to be important. Our previous study comparing the skeletal proteome of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii to the published proteomes of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus revealed some conservation of proteins, but indicated that the C-type lectin domain-containing spicule matrix proteins abundant in the sea urchin skeletal proteome were not conserved in the brittle star. Here we examine the skeletal proteome of a different species of brittle star, Ophiothrix spiculata. We have isolated the proteins from the skeleton of O. spiculata and performed LC/MS/MS to identify peptides present. Comparison to transcriptome and genome databases revealed the proteins present in the O. spiculata proteome. Despite being diverged for several million years, the two brittle stars have very similar proteins in their skeletons. Included is a fibrinogen C-like lectin and several C-type lectins proteins, which we describe in detail. The unusual number of C-type lectins found in the S. purpuatus skeleton and the repetitive regions seen in those spicule matrix proteins are not present in O. spiculata.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords proteomics; skeleton; C-type lectin; echinoderms

Citation: Rachel L. Flores, Kayla Gonzales, Ryan W. Seaver, Brian T. Livingston. The skeletal proteome of the brittle star Ophiothrix spiculata identifies C-type lectins and other proteins conserved in echinoderm skeleton formation. AIMS Molecular Science, 2016, 3(3): 357-367. doi: 10.3934/molsci.2016.3.357

References

  • 1. Wilt FH, Killian CE, Livingston BT (2003) Development of calcareous skeletal elements in invertebrates. Differentiation 71: 237-250.    
  • 2. Young MF (2016)Skeletal biology: Where matrix meets mineral. Matrix Biol 52: 1-6.
  • 3. Sea Urchin Genome Sequencing Consortium, Sodergen E, Weinstock GM, et al. (2006) The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Science 314: 941-952.
  • 4. Mann K, Poustka AJ, Mann M (2008) The sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) test and spine proteomes. Proteome Sci 6: 11.    
  • 5. Mann K, Poustka AJ, Mann M(2008) In-depth, high-accuracy proteomics of sea urchin tooth organic matrix. Proteome Sci 6: 33.
  • 6. Mann K, Wilt FH, Poustka AJ (2010) Proteomic Analysis of sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) spicule matrix. Proteome Sci 8: 33.    
  • 7. Livingston BT, Killian CE, Wilt F, et al. (2006) A Genome-Wide Analysis of Biomineralization-Related Proteins in the Sea Urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev Biol 300: 335-348.    
  • 8. Meeds T, Lockard E, Livingston BT (2001) Special evolutionary properties of genes encoding a protein with a simple amino acid repeat. J Mol Evol 53: 180-190.    
  • 9. Seaver R, Livingston BT (2015) Examination of the skeletal proteome of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii reveals overall conservation of proteins but variation in spicule matrix proteins. Proteome Sci 13: 7.    
  • 10. Stephan A, Mateos JM, Kozlov SV, et al. (2008) Neurotrypsin cleaves agrin locally at the synapse. FASEB J 22: 1861-1873.    
  • 11. Bolliger MF, Zurlinden A, Lüscher D, et al. (2010) Specific proteolytic cleavage of agrin regulates maturation of the neuromuscular junction. J Cell Sci 123: 3944-3955.
  • 12. Bertucci A, Moya A, Tambutté S, et al. (2013) Carbonic anhydrases in anthozoan corals-A review. Bioorg Med Chem 21: 1437-1450.    
  • 13. Voigt O, Adamski M, Sluzek K, et al. (2014) Calcareous sponge genomes reveal complex evolution of α-carbonic anhydrases and two key biomineralization enzymes. BMC Evol Biol 14: 230.    
  • 14. Cameron CB, Bishop CD (2012) Biomineral ultrastructure, elemental constitution and genomic analysis of biomineralization-related proteins in hemichordates. Proc Biol Sci 279: 3041-3048.    
  • 15. LE Roy N, Marie B, Gaume B, et al. (2012) Identification of two carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda, Haliotidae): phylogenetic implications. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 318: 353-367.
  • 16. Zito F, Koop D, Byrne M, et al. (2015) Carbonic anhydrase inhibition blocks skeletogenesis and echinochrome production in Paracentrotus lividus and Heliocidaris tuberculata embryos and larvae. Dev Growth Differ 57: 507-514.    
  • 17.Smith AJ,Gidley J,Sandy JR, et al. (2005) Haplotypes of the low-density lipoprotein receptor- related protein 5 (LRP5) gene: are they a risk factor in osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis Cartilage 13: 608-613.
  • 18. Alves RD, Demmers JA, Bezstarosti K, et al. (2011) Unraveling the human bone microenvironment beyond the classical extracellular matrix proteins: a human bone protein library. J Proteome Res 10: 4725-4733    
  • 19. Thouverey C, Malinowska A, Balcerzak M, et al. (2011) Proteomic characterization of biogenesis and functions of matrix vesicles released from mineralizing human osteoblast-like cells. J Proteomics 74: 1123-1134.    
  • 20. Drickamer K (1999) C-type lectin –like domains. Curr Opin Struct Biol 9: 585-590.    
  • 21. Zelensky AN, Gready JE (2005) The C-type lectin-like domain superfamily. FEBS J 272: 6179-6217.    

 

This article has been cited by

  • 1. Rachel L. Flores, Brian T. Livingston, The skeletal proteome of the sea star Patiria miniata and evolution of biomineralization in echinoderms, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 2017, 17, 1, 10.1186/s12862-017-0978-z
  • 2. Tomohisa Ogawa, Rie Sato, Takako Naganuma, Kayeu Liu, Agness Ethel Lakudzala, Koji Muramoto, Makoto Osada, Kyosuke Yoshimi, Keiko Hiemori, Jun Hirabayashi, Hiroaki Tateno, Glycan Binding Profiling of Jacalin-Related Lectins from the Pteria Penguin Pearl Shell, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2019, 20, 18, 4629, 10.3390/ijms20184629

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2016, Brian T. Livingston, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved