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Incidence and Prevention of Strokes in TAVI

Sones Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA

Special Issues: Safety and outcomes of current TAVI devices

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is now a widely adopted option for many inoperable and high risk patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, and clinical trials continue to show great benefit with regards to mortality and major cardiovascular endpoints. As the technology continues to expand and possibly grow to include intermediate and low risk populations, investigators have remained focused on efforts to reduce the risk of peri-procedural complications, of which neurologic events remain some of the most feared. Fortunately, contemporary studies have shown a significant decline in the risk of stroke with TAVI as compared to early clinical trials, and no difference when compared to surgical aortic valve replacement in the most recent trials. This review will focus on current methods for diagnosing, defining, and quantifying the effect of stroke after TAVI, explore the evidence with regards to stroke risk in various populations undergoing these procedures, discuss possible mechanisms for both early and late neurologic events after TAVI, and discuss strategies for both pharmacologic and device based embolic protection during these procedures.
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