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Biofluid-based microRNA Biomarkers for Parkinsons Disease: an Overview and Update

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA

Special Issues: Biofluid Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly debilitating motor disorder and is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Its current method of diagnosis mainly relies on subjective clinical rating scales in the presence of clinical motor features. Early detection of PD is a known challenge as neuronal cell death may range from 50% to 80% when a patient is first diagnosed with PD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and develop biomarkers for early detection of this progressive disease. This mini review focuses on the recent developments of biofluid-based microRNAs (miRNAs) as molecular biomarkers for PD. A comprehensive list of miRNA biomarkers found in blood, plasma, serum, and cerebral spinal fluid is presented. Challenges and future perspectives of using these PD-related molecular biomarkers in a “real-world” clinical setting are also discussed.
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