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Dynamics and spatio-temporal patterns in a prey–predator system with aposematic prey

1 Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Kanagawa 252-5258, Japan
2 Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India

Special Issues: Mathematical Modeling to Solve the Problems in Life Sciences

We analyze the impact of aposematic time and searching efficiency of prey on the temporal and spatio-temporal dynamics of a diffusive prey–predator system. Here, our assumption is that the prey population primarily invests its total time in two activities—(i) defense against predation and (ii) searching for food, followed by growth-induced reproduction, whereas, predators do not involve in self-defense. Moreover, we consider that the reproduction rate of prey and the rate of predation have a negative linear correlation with the amount of time invested for aposematism. Based on the presump- tions, we find that unlike searching efficiency of prey, the aposematic time can diminish the proportion in which prey and predator coexist when it crosses a certain threshold, and at the extreme aposematism, the entire population drives into the extinction. The proposed dynamics undergoes Hopf-bifurcation with respect to the searching efficiency of prey. We examine the individual effect of aposematic time and searching efficiency on the formation of regular Turing patterns—the low to medium to high val-ues of defense-time and food searching efficiency generate ‘spots’ to ‘stripes’ to ‘holes’ pattern, re-spectively; however, the combined impact of both presents only non-Turing ‘spot’ pattern with the ‘predominance of predators,’ which happens through the Turing-Hopf bifurcation.
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© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

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