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Modeling the effect of antibiotic exposure on the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals with environmental contamination

1 Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7058, USA
2 Department of Mathematics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA

In this paper both deterministic and stochastic models are developed to explore the roles that antibiotic exposure and environmental contamination play in the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in hospitals. Uncolonized patients without or with antibiotic exposure, colonized patients without or with antibiotic exposure, uncontaminated or contaminated healthcare workers, and free-living bacteria are included in the models. Under the assumption that there is no admission of the colonized patients, the basic reproduction number R0 is calculated. It is shown that when R0 < 1, the infection-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; when R0 > 1, the infection is uniformly persistent. Numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis show that environmental cleaning is a critical intervention, and hospitals should use antibiotics properly and as little as possible. The rapid and efficient treatment of colonized patients, especially those with antibiotic exposure, is key in controlling MRSA infections. Screening and isolating colonized patients at admission, and improving compliance with hand hygiene are also important control strategies.
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