Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Numerical evaluation of ablation zone under different tip temperatures during radiofrequency ablation

College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China

Special Issues: Advanced Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine

The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between the shape and size of ablation zone and the ablation time during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) at different tip temperatures (80, 85, 90, and 95 °C). A two-dimensional simulation model of liver RFA using single-electrode was first built by finite element method (FEM). A closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) controller was employed in the FEM model. The heat transfer issues were solved based on Pennes biological equation. To improve simulation accuracy of the FEM models, temperature-dependent forms of the electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity were adopted in the model. The ablation zone was assessed by 54 °C isothermal contour (IT54). The ablation zone sizes obtained from the numerical simulations and ex vivo experiments were compared to evaluate the validity of the numerical model. All the four tip temperatures (80, 85, 90, and 95 °C) were tested using 3 ex vivo porcine livers respectively. According to numerical simulation results, the characterization functions of the ablation volume and the ablative margin (AM) were derived. The proposed curve functions could precisely characterize the shape and size of ablation zone at different preset tip values, and the statistical results showed that the prediction curves had a good consistency with simulation curves. This paper proposed the prediction models of the ablation zone in the RFA process, which could be used to achieve accurate planning of RFA needle placements and optimize patient care during temperature-controlled RFA therapy.
  Article Metrics

Keywords Temperature-controlled RFA; finite element method (FEM); ablation margin (AM); ablation volume

Citation: Xiaoru Wang, Hongjian Gao, Shuicai Wu, Tao Jiang, Zhuhuang Zhou, Yanping Bai. Numerical evaluation of ablation zone under different tip temperatures during radiofrequency ablation. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 2019, 16(4): 2514-2531. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2019126


  • 1. D. Haemmerich, L. Chachati and A. S. Wright, et al., Hepatic radiofrequency ablation with internally cooled probes: effect of coolant temperature on lesion size, IEEE. T. Biomed. Eng., 50 (2003), 493–500.
  • 2. L. S. Poulou, Botsa E and I. Thanou, et al., Percutaneous microwave ablation vs radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, World. J. Hepatol., 7 (2015), 1054–1063.
  • 3. X. Chen, H. P. Liu and M. Li, et al., Advances in non-surgical management of primary liver cancer, World. J. Gastroenterol., 20 (2014), 16630–16638.
  • 4. C. L. Brace, Radiofrequency and microwave ablation of the liver, lung, kidney, and bone: what are the differences? Curr. Probl. Diagn. Radiol., 38 (2009), 135–143.
  • 5. D. Haemmerich, Biophysics of radiofrequency ablation, Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 38 (2010), 53–63.
  • 6. K. Ikeda, T. Seki and H. Umehara, et al., Clinicopathologic study of small hepatocellular carcinoma with microscopic satellite nodules to determine the extent of tumor ablation by local therapy, Int. J. Oncol., 31 (2007), 485–491.
  • 7. B. Zhang, M. A. J. Moser and E. M. Zhang, et al., A review of radiofrequency ablation: Large target tissue necrosis and mathematical modelling, Phys. Medica., 32 (2016), 961–971.
  • 8. C. Jiang, B. Liu and S. Chen, et al., Safety margin after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: precise assessment with a three-dimensional reconstruction technique using CT imaging, Int. J. Hyperther., 34 (2018), 1135–1141.
  • 9. B. Zhang, M. A. J. Moser and E. M. Zhang, et al., Numerical analysis of the relationship between the area of target tissue necrosis and the size of target tissue in liver tumours with pulsed radiofrequency ablation, Int. J. Hyperther., 31 (2015), 715–725.
  • 10. V. K. Nagarajan, V. R. Gogineni and S. B. White, et al., (2018). Real time evaluation of tissue optical properties during thermal ablation of ex vivo liver tissues, Int. J. Hyperther., Online 34:1.
  • 11. M. Zhang, Z. H. Zhou and S. C. Wu, et al., Simulation of temperature field for temperature-controlled radio frequency ablation using a hyperbolic bioheat equation and temperature-varied voltage calibration: a liver-mimicking phantom study, Phys. Med. Biol., 60 (2015), 9455–9471.
  • 12. X. R. Wang, H. J. Gao and S. C. Wu, et al., RF ablation thermal simulation model: Parameter sensitivity analysis. Technol. Health. Care, 26 (2018 Sup1), 179–192.
  • 13. S. Singh and R. Repaka, Numerical study to establish relationship between coagulation volume and target tip temperature during temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation, Electromagn. Biol. Med., 37 (2018), 13–22.
  • 14. M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge and M. Hiraoka, et al., The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions, Med. Phys., 22 (1995), 1779–1792.
  • 15. H. Arkin, L. X. Xu and K. R. Holmes., Recent developments in modeling heat transfer in blood perfused tissues, IEEE. T. Biomed. Eng., 41 (1994), 97–107.
  • 16. H. J. Gao, S. C. Wu and X.R. Wang, et al., Temperature simulation of microwave ablation based on improved specific absorption rate method compared to phantom measurements, Comput. Assist. Surg., 22 (2017), 9–17.
  • 17. Y. C. Lai, Y. B. Choy and D. Haemmerich, et al., Lesion size estimator of cardiac radiofrequency ablation at different common locations with different tip temperatures, IEEE. T. Biomed. Eng., 51 (2004), 1859–1864.
  • 18. C. Rossmann and D. Haemmerich, Review of temperature dependence of thermal properties, dielectric properties, and perfusion of biological tissues at hyperthermic and ablation temperatures, Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 42 (2014), 467–492.
  • 19. M. S. Chen, J. Q. Li and Y. Zheng, et al., A prospective randomized trial comparing percutaneous local ablative therapy and partial hepatectomy for small hepatocellular carcinoma, Ann. Surg., 243 (2006), 321–328.
  • 20. B. Zhang, M. A. J. Moser and E. M. Zhang, et al., A new approach to feedback control of radiofrequency ablation systems for large coagulation zones, Int. J. Hyperther., 33 (2017), 367–377.
  • 21. J. Pearce,Relationship between Arrhenius models of thermal damage and the CEM 43 thermal dose, Energy Treat. Tissue Assess. V, 718104 (2009), 1–15.
  • 22. G. Zorbas and T. Samaras, Simulation of radiofrequency ablation in real human anatomy, Int. J. Hyperther., 30 (2014), 570–578.
  • 23. E. H. Ooi, K. W. Lee and S. Yap, et al., The effects of electrical and thermal boundary condition on the simulation of radiofrequency ablation of liver cancer for tumors located near to the liver boundary, Comput. Biol. Med., 106 (2019), 12–23.
  • 24. P. Prakash and C. J. Diederich, Considerations for theoretical modelling of thermal ablation with catheter-based ultrasonic sources: Implications for treatment planning, monitoring and control, Int. J. Hyperther., 28 (2012), 69–86.
  • 25. G. Reddy, M. R. Dreher and C. Rossmann, et al., Cytotoxicity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to hyperthermic and ablative temperature exposures: in vitro studies and mathematical modelling, Int. J. Hyperther., 29 (2013), 318–323.
  • 26. J. Arenas, J. J. Perez and M. Trujillo, et al., Computer modeling and ex vivo experiments with a (saline-linked) irrigated electrode for RF-assisted heating, Biomed. Eng. Online, 13 (2014), 164–179.
  • 27. A. González-Suárez and E. Berjano, Comparative analysis of different methods of modeling the thermal effect of circulating blood flow during RF cardiac ablation, IEEE. T. Biomed. Eng., 63 (2016), 250–259.
  • 28. K. Ikeda, M. Kobayashi and S. Saitoh, et al., Cost-effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation and surgical therapy for small hepatocellular carcinoma of 3 cm or less in diameter, Hepatol. Res., 33 (2005), 241–249.
  • 29. A. Cucchetti, F. Piscaglia and M. Cescon, et al., Cost-effectiveness of hepatic resection versus percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for early hepatocellular carcinoma, J. Hepatol., 59 (2013), 300–307.
  • 30. Y. C. Wang, T. C. H. Chan and A. V. Sahakian, Real-time estimation of lesion depth and control of radiofrequency ablation within ex vivo animal tissues using a neural network, Int. J. Hyperther., 34 (2018), 1104–1113.
  • 31. C. Rieder, T. Kroeger and C. Schumann, et al., GPU-based real-time approximation of the ablation zone for radiofrequency ablation, IEEE. T. Vis. Comput. Gr., 17 (2011), 1812–1821.
  • 32. M. Ahmed, C. L. Brace and Jr. F. T. Lee, et al., Principles of and advances in percutaneous ablation, Radiology, 258 (2011), 351–369.
  • 33. S. Singh and R. Repaka, Parametric sensitivity analysis of critical factors affecting the thermal damage during RFA of breast tumor, Int. J. Therm. Sci., 142 (2018), 366–374.


Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved