Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Wood cellulose fibers reinforced polylactic acid composite: mechanical, thermomechanical characteristics and orientation of fiber

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

The wood cellulose fiber (WCF) reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) offers cost effectiveness, ease of mass production, short processing time, structural stability, high quality and efficient recyclability. In the study presented orientation of fiber, microstructure and thermomechanical property of composites are beingexamined by using X-ray tomography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA). Also, the mechanical properties of WCF–PLA–MAH composites were characterized and analyzed. The results demonstrated that the best outcome of elastic modulus and tensile strength were accomplished at 30%WCF–PLA–3%MAH composite. The DMA result explains that by adding MAH in WCF–PLA as an interfacial coupling agent enhanced the storage modulus and increased the toughness of WCF–PLA composite by decreasing the tanδ peak. X-ray tomography of the PLA/WCF/FB composite shows that the degree of anisotropy is accomplished 25% higher when WCF was 30% in PLA matrix. In addition, the SEM micrograph shows that when MAH was used the interfacial compatibility between the PLA matrix and WCF improved.
  Article Metrics

Keywords polylactic acid (PLA); wood celluosefiber (WCF); maleic anhydride (MAH); dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA); X-ray Tomography; degree of anisotropy (DA)

Citation: Usman Saeed. Wood cellulose fibers reinforced polylactic acid composite: mechanical, thermomechanical characteristics and orientation of fiber. AIMS Materials Science, 2020, 7(1): 9-23. doi: 10.3934/matersci.2020.1.9


  • 1. Dittenber DB, GangaRao HV (2012) Critical review of recent publications on use of natural composites in infrastructure. Compos Part A-Appl S 43: 1419-1429.    
  • 2. Ashori A (2008) Wood-plastic composites as promising green-composites for automotive industries. Bioresource Technol 99: 4661-4671.    
  • 3. Sanyang ML, Illyas RA, Saupen SM, et al. (2018) Sugar palm starch-based composites for packaging applications, In: Jawaid M, Swain SK, Bionanocomposites for Packaging Applications, Springer-Cham, 125-147.
  • 4. Lavoine N, Dufresne A, Desloges I, et al. (2012) Microfibrillated cellulose-its barrier properties and applications in cellulosic materials: A review. Carbohyd Polym 90: 735-764.    
  • 5. Khalil HPSA, Yusra AF (2012) Green composites from sustainable cellulose nanofibrils: A review. Carbohyd Polym 87: 963-974.    
  • 6. Xu SY, Xie YZ, Meng LX (2016) Application of biomass-based composites in food packaging. For Eng 32: 85-89.
  • 7. Armentano I, Bitinis N, Fortunati E, et al. (2013) Multifunctional nanostructured PLA materials for packaging and tissue engineering. Prog Polym Sci 38: 1720-1747.    
  • 8. Torres J, Cotelo J, Karl J, et al. (2015) Mechanical property optimization of FDM PLA in shear with multiple objectives. JOM 67:1183-1193.    
  • 9. Hsieh CT, Pan YJ, Lou CW, et al. (2016) Polylactic acid/carbon fiber composites: effects of functionalized elastomers on mechanical properties, thermal behavior, surface compatibility, and electrical characteristics. Fiber Polym 17: 615-623.    
  • 10. Yusoff RB, Takagi H, Nakagaito AN (2016) Tensile and flexural properties of polylactic acid-based hybrid green composites reinforced by kenaf, bamboo and coir fibers. Ind Crop Prod 94: 562-573.    
  • 11. Panthapulakkal S, Law S, Sain M (2005) Enhancement of processability of rice husk filled high-density polyethylene composite profiles. J Thermoplas Compos Mater 18:445-450.    
  • 12. Mohanty S, Verma SK, Nayak S (2006) Dyamic mechanical and thermal properties of MAPE treatfied jute/HDPE composite. Compos Sci Technol 66: 538-543.    
  • 13. Li X, Tabil LG, Oguocha IN, et al. (2008) Thermal diffusivity,thermal conductivity, and specific heat of flax fiber-HDPE biocomposites at processing temperature. Compos Sci Technol 68: 1753-1758.    
  • 14. Semeralul HO, Rizvi GM (2008) Glass fiber reinforced wood/plastic composites. J Vinyl Addit Techn 14: 39-42.    
  • 15. Guo G, Lee YH, Rizvi GM, et al. (2008) Influence of wood fiber size on extrusion foaming of wood fiber/HDPE composites. J Appl Polym Sci 107: 3505-3511.    
  • 16. Porras A, Maranon A, Ashcroft IA (2015) Characterization of a novel natural cellulose fabric from Manicariasaccifera palm as possible reinforcement of composite materials. Compos Part B-Eng 74: 66-73.    
  • 17. NakagaitoA, Yano NH (2005) Novel high-strength biocomposites based on microfibrillated cellulose having nano-order unit web-like network structure. Appl Phys A-Mater 80: 155-159.    
  • 18. Gupta A, Simmons W, Schueneman GT, et al. (2016) Lignin-coated cellulose nanocrystals as promising nucleating agent for poly(lactic acid). JTAC 126: 1243-1251.
  • 19. Ilyas RA, Sapuan SM, Ishak MR, et al. (2019) Sugar palm nanofibrillated cellulose: effect of cycles on their yield, physic-chemical, morphological and thermal behavior. Int J Biol Macromol 123: 379-388.    
  • 20. Ilyas RA, Sapuan SM, Sanyang ML, et al. (2018) Nanocrystalline cellulose as reinforcement for polymeric matrix nanocomposites and its potential applications: a review. Curr Anal Chem 14: 203-225.    
  • 21. Qin J, Jiang Y, Fu J, et al. (2013) Evaluation of drug release property and blood compatibility of aspirin-loaded electrospun PLA/RSF composite nanofibers. Iran Polym J 22:729-737.    
  • 22. Guo W, Ashida M (1993) Mechanical properties of PET short fiber-polyester thermoplastic elastomer composites. J Appl Polym Sci 50: 1435-1443.    
  • 23. Saeed U, Dawood U, Ali AM (2019) Cellulose triacetate fiber-reinforced polystyrene composite. J Thermoplast Compos 2: 1-15.
  • 24. George J, Shreekala MS, Thomas S (2001) A review on interface modification and characterization of natural fibre reinforced plastic composites. Polym Eng Sci 41: 1471-1485.    
  • 25. Saba N, Jawaid M, Othman Y, et al. (2016) A review on dynamic mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites. Constr Build Mater 106: 149-159.    
  • 26. Huang H, Zhang J (2009) Effects of filler-filler and polymer-filler interactions on rheological and mechanical properties of HDPE-wood composites. J Appl Polym Sci 111: 2806-2813.    
  • 27. Kirz J, Jacobsen C, Howells M (1995) Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications. Q Rev Biophys 28: 33-130.    
  • 28. Ritman EL (2002) Molecular imaging in small animals-roles for micro-CT cell. J Cell Biochem 87: 116-120.    
  • 29. Kak AC, Slaney M (1988) Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging, New York: The lnstbte of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
  • 30. Pandita SD, Verpoest I (2003) Prediction of the tensile stiffness of weft knitted fabric composites based on X-ray tomography images. Compos Sci Technol 63: 311-325.    
  • 31. Faessel M, Delisee C, Bos F, et al. (2005) 3D modelling of random cellulosic fibrous networks based on X-ray tomography and image analysis. Compos Sci Technol 65: 1931-1940.    
  • 32. Schilling, PJ, Kadedla BR, Tatiparthi AK, et al. (2005) X-ray computed microtomography of internal damage in fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. Compos Sci Technol 65: 2071-2078.    
  • 33. Eichhorn SJ, Baillie CA, Zafeiropoulos N, et al. (2001) Review: current international research into cellulosic fibres and composites. J Mater Sci 36: 2107-2131.    
  • 34. Hrabalova M, Gregorova A, Wimmer R, et al. (2010) Effect of wood flour loading and thermal annealing on viscoelastic properties of PLA composite films. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 1534-1540.
  • 35. Ekevad M (2004) Method to compute fiber directions in wood from computed tomography images. J Wood Sci 50: 41-45.    
  • 36. Walther T, Terzic K, Meine H, et al. (2006) Microstructural analysis of lignocellulosic fiber networks. Developments in X-ray Tomography V 6318: 631812.    
  • 37. Saeed U, Rizvi G (2015) Three dimensional orientation of compression-molded high density polyethylene/wood fibers using X-ray micro-tomography. J Cell Plast 51: 45-57.    
  • 38. Way C, Wu DY, Palombo E, et al. (2012) Processing stability and biodegradation of polylactic acid (PLA) composites reinforced with cotton linters or maple hardwood fibres. J Polym Environ 21: 54-70.
  • 39. Zhang L, Lv S, Sun C, et al. (2017) Effect of MAH-g-PLA on the properties of wood fiber/polylactic acid composites. Polymers 9: 591.    
  • 40. Saeed U, Hussain K, Rizvi G (2014) HDPE reinforced with glass fibers: rheology, tensile properties, stress relaxation, and orientation of fibers. Polym Composite 35: 2159-2169.    
  • 41. Huda MS, Drzal LT, Mohanty AK, et al. (2006) Wood fiber reinforced polylactic acid composite: evaluation of the physicomechanical and morphological properties. J Appl Polym Sci 102: 4856-4869.    
  • 42. Correa CA, Razzino CA, Hage JE (2007) Role of maleated coupling agents on the interface adhesion of polypropylene-wood composites. J Thermoplast Compos 20: 323-339.    
  • 43. Neves NM, Pontes AJ, Pouzada, AS (2002) Fiber contents effect on the fiber orientation in injection molded GF/PP composites plates. Society of Plastic Engineering (SPE) ANTEC.
  • 44. Cosmi F, Bernasconi A, Sodini N (2011) Phase contrast micro-tomography and morphological analysis of a short carbon fibre reinforced polyamide. Compos Sci Technol 71: 23-30.    
  • 45. Bernasconi A, Cosmi F, Dreossi D (2008) Local anisotropy analysis of injection moulded fibre reinforced polymer composites. Compos Sci Technol 68: 2574-2581.    


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Metehan Atagür, Nusret Kaya, Tuğçe Uysalman, Cenk Durmuşkahya, Mehmet Sarikanat, Kutlay Sever, Yoldaş Seki, A detailed characterization of sandalwood-filled high-density polyethylene composites, Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 2020, 089270572093915, 10.1177/0892705720939157

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2020 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved