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Colloidal stability of liposomes

1 Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, 98158 Messina, Italy
2 Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Studio Materiali Nanostrutturati, 00015 Roma, Italy
3 Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
4 Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow 141980, Russia

Topical Section: Biomolecular Materials: DNA, RNA, proteins, peptides, lipids

In recent years, the development of novel approaches for the formation of lipid nano-formulations for efficient transport of drug molecules in living systems offers a wide range of biotechnology applications. However, despite the remarkable progress in recent methodologies of synthesis that provide a wide variety of solutions concerning the liposome surface functionalization and grafting with synthetic targeting ligands, the action of most liposomes is associated with a number of unwanted side effects diminishing their efficient use in nanomedicine and biotechnology. The major limitation in the use of such versatile and smart drug delivery systems is connected with their limited colloidal stability arising from the interaction with the complex environment and multiform interactions established within the specific biological media. Herein, we review the main interactions involved in liposomes used in drug delivery processes. We also analyze relevant strategies that aim at offering possible perspectives for the development of next-generation of liposomes nanocarriers that are able to overcome the critical issues during their action in complex biological media.
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