Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Physical and thermo-mechanical properties of bionano reinforced poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate), hemp/CNF/Ag-NPs composites

1 Department of Polymer Science and Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT), Kochi, Kerala, India
2 Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, The Sirindhorn International Thai-German Graduate School of Engineering (TGGS), King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
3 Center of Innovation in Design and Engineering for Manufacturing, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
4 Natural Composite Research Group, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand

A facile approach to prepare bionanocomposites of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) is reported in this paper. The effect of different wt% of hemp/Sihemp, carbon nanofiber (CNF) and silver nanoparticle (Ag-NPs) on the density, water absorption, melting and crystallization behavior, thermal stability, mechanical properties and morphology was investigated. The density of the composites was reduced except for Ag-NPs reinforced nanocomposites while diffusion coefficient and maximum water absorption were decreased for Sihemp reinforced composites making it a suitable material to replace conventional polymers. Significant improvement in tensile strength (TS) and tensile modulus (TM) was observed for the PBAT/Sihemp composites. For CNF and Ag-NPs reinforced nanocomposites, mechanical properties were retained at lower filler concentration. But as the concentration increased, there was a tendency for the nanofillers to agglomerate, which resulted in a reduction in mechanical properties.
  Article Metrics

Keywords poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate); bionanocomposites; crystallization; morphology; tensile properties

Citation: Harikrishnan Pulikkalparambil, Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai, Jinu Jacob George, Krittirash Yorseng, Suchart Siengchin. Physical and thermo-mechanical properties of bionano reinforced poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate), hemp/CNF/Ag-NPs composites. AIMS Materials Science, 2017, 4(3): 814-831. doi: 10.3934/matersci.2017.3.814


  • 1. Abraham JD, Kost J, Wiseman D (1998) Handbook of biodegradable polymers, CRC Press.
  • 2. Demirbas A (2007) Biodegradable plastics from renewable resources. Energ Sources Part A 29: 419–424.
  • 3. Weng YX, Jin YJ, Meng QY, et al. (2013) Biodegradation behavior of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), and their blend under soil conditions. Polym Test 32: 918–926.    
  • 4. Mondal D, Bhowmick B, Mollick MR, et al. (2014) Antimicrobial activity and biodegradation behavior of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/clay nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 131: 40079.
  • 5. Jiang L, Wolcott MP, Zhang J (2006) Study of Biodegradable Polylactide/Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) Blends. Biomacromolecules 7: 199–207.    
  • 6. Comanita ED, Hlihor RM, Ghinea C, et al. (2016) Occurrence of plastic waste in the environment: Ecological and health risks. Environ Eng Manag J 15: 675–685.
  • 7. Verma R, Vinoda KS, Papireddy M, et al. (2016) Toxic Pollutants from Plastic Waste-A Review. Procedia Environ Sci 35: 701–708.    
  • 8. Genovese L, Lotti N, Gazzano M, et al. (2016) Novel biodegradable aliphatic copolyesters based on poly(butylene succinate) containing thioether-linkages for sustainable food packaging applications. Polym Degrad Stabil 132: 191–201.    
  • 9. Peres AM, Pires RR, Oréfice RL (2016) Evaluation of the effect of reprocessing on the structure and properties of low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blends. Carbohyd Polym 136: 210–215.    
  • 10. Debeaufort F, Gallo JAQ, Voilley A (1998) Edible Films and Coatings: Tomorrow's Packagings: A Review. Crit Rev Food Sci 38: 299–313.    
  • 11. Arvanitoyannis I, Biliaderis CG, Ogawa H, et al. (1998) Biodegradable films made from low density polyethylene (LDPE), rice starch and potato starch for food packaging application: Part I. Carbohyd Polym 36: 89–104.    
  • 12. Tharanathan RN (2003) Biodegradable films and composite coatings: past, present and future. Trends Food Sci Tech 14: 71–78.    
  • 13. Kushwaha PK, Kumar R (2010) Studies on Water Absorption of Bamboo-Polyester Composites: Effect of Silane Treatment of Mercerized Bamboo. Polym-Plast Technol 49: 45–52.
  • 14. Touchaleaume F, Closas LM, Coussy HA, et al. (2016) Performance and environmental impact of biodegradable polymers as agricultural mulching films. Chemosphere 144: 433–439.    
  • 15. Saba N, Jawaid M, Alothman OY, et al. (2016) A review on dynamic mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites. Constr Build Mater 106: 149–159.    
  • 16. Balakrishnan P, John MJ, Pothen L, et al. (2016) Natural fibre and polymer matrix composites and their applications in aerospace engineering, In: Rana S, Fangueiro R, Advanced Composite Materials for Aerospace Engineering: Processing, Properties and Applications, 365–383.
  • 17. George M, Chae M, Bressler DC (2016) Composite materials with bast fibres: Structural, technical, and environmental properties. Prog Mater Sci 83: 1–23.    
  • 18. Džalto J, Medina LA, Mitschang P (2014) Volumetric interaction and material characterization of flax/furan biocomposites. KMUTNB: IJAST 7: 11–21.    
  • 19. John MJ, Anandjiwala RD (2008) Recent developments in chemical modification and characterization of natural fiber-reinforced composites. Polym Composite 29: 187–207.
  • 20. Li X, Tabil LG, Panigrahi S (2007) Chemical treatments of natural fiber for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites: a review. J Polym Environ 15: 25–33.
  • 21. Mwaikambo LY, Ansell MP (2002) Chemical modification of hemp, sisal, jute, and kapok fibers by alkalization. J Appl Polym Sci 84: 2222–2234.
  • 22. Orue A, Jauregi A, Peña-Rodriguez C, et al. (2015) The effect of surface modifications on sisal fiber properties and sisal/poly (lactic acid) interface adhesion. Compos Part B-Eng 73: 132–138.
  • 23. Shahzad A (2012) Hemp fiber and its composites-a review. J Compos Mater 46: 973–986.    
  • 24. Karger-Kocsis J, Siengchin S (2014) Single-Polymer Composites: Concepts, Realization and Outlook: Review. KMUTNB: IJAST 7: 1–9.
  • 25. Zolali AM, Favis BD (2017) Partial to complete wetting transitions in immiscible ternary blends with PLA: the influence of interfacial confinement. Soft Matter 13: 2844–2856.    
  • 26. Nofar M, Tabatabaei A, Sojoudiasli H, et al. (2017) Mechanical and bead foaming behavior of PLA-PBAT and PLA-PBSA blends with different morphologies. Eur Polym J 90: 231–244.    
  • 27. Wu N, Zhang H (2017) Mechanical properties and phase morphology of super-tough PLA/PBAT/EMA-GMA multicomponent blends. Mater Lett 192: 17–20.    
  • 28. Moustafa H, Guizani C, Dupont C, et al. (2017) Utilization of Torrefied Coffee Grounds as Reinforcing Agent To Produce High-Quality Biodegradable PBAT Composites for Food Packaging Applications. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 5: 1906–1916.
  • 29. Mohanty S, Nayak SK (2010) Biodegradable nanocomposites of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with organically modified nanoclays. Int J Plast Technol 14: 192–212.    
  • 30. Fukushima K, Wu MH, Bocchini S, et al. (2012) PBAT based nanocomposites for medical and industrial applications. Mater Sci Eng C-Mater Biol Appl 32: 1331–1351.    
  • 31. Dhakal HN, Zhang ZY, Bennett N (2012) Influence of fibre treatment and glass fibre hybridization on thermal degradation and surface energy characteristics of hemp/unsaturated polyester composites. Compos Part B-Eng 43: 2757–2761.    
  • 32. Panaitescu DM, Nicolae CA, Vuluga Z, et al. (2016) Influence of hemp fibers with modified surface on polypropylene composites. J Ind Eng Chem 37: 137–146.    
  • 33. Phongam N, Dangtungee R, Siengchin S (2015) Comparative studies on the mechanical properties of nonwoven- and woven-flax-fiber-reinforced poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)-based composite laminates. Mech Compos Mater 51: 17–24.    
  • 34. Kim JS, Kuk E, Yu KN, et al. (2007) Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomed-Nanotechnol 3: 95–101.
  • 35. Abdo HS, Khalil AK, Al-deyab SS, et al. (2013) Antibacterial effect of carbon nanofibers containing Ag nanoparticles. Fiber Polym 14: 1985–1992.    
  • 36. ASTM D792 (2000) Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement.
  • 37. Valadez-Gonzalez A, Cervantes-Uc JM, Olayob R, et al. (1999) Effect of fiber surface treatment on the fiber-matrix bond strength of natural fiber reinforced composites. Compos Part B-Eng 30: 309–320.    
  • 38. Suardana NPG, Piao Y, Lim JK (2011) Mechanical Properties of Hemp Fibers and Hemp/PP Composites: Effects of Chemical Surface Treatment. Mater Phys Mech 11: 1–8.
  • 39. Chatterjee U, Jewrajka SK, Guha S (2009) Dispersion of functionalized silver nanoparticles in polymer matrices: Stability, characterization, and physical properties. Polym Composite 30: 827–834.    
  • 40. Dhakal HN, Zhang ZY, Richardson MOW (2007) Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of hemp fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. Compos Sci Technol 67: 1674–1683.    
  • 41. Lin S, Guo W, Chen C, et al. (2012) Mechanical properties and morphology of biodegradablepoly(lactic acid)/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) blends compatibilized by transesterification. Mater Design 36: 604–608.    
  • 42. Das S, Saha AK, Choudhury PK, et al. (2000) Effect of steam pretreatment of jute fiber on dimensional stability of jute composite. J Appl Polym Sci 76:1652–1661.    
  • 43. Nagarajan V, Mohanty AK, Misra M (2013) Sustainable Green Composites: Value Addition to Agricultural Residues and Perennial Grasses. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 1: 325–333.    
  • 44. Banks WM, Dumolin F, Hayward D, et al. (1996) Nondestructive examination of composite joint structures: a correlation of water absorption and high-frequency dielectric propagation. J Phys D-Appl Phys 29: 233–239.    
  • 45. Wang W, Sain M, Cooper PA (2006) Study of moisture absorption in natural fibre plastic composites. Compos Sci Technol 66: 379–386.    
  • 46. Sreekala MS, Thomas S (2003) Effect of fibre surface treatment on water sorption characteristics of oil palm fibres. Compos Sci Technol 63: 861–869.    
  • 47. Mwaikambo LY, Bisanda ETN (1999) The performance of cotton-kapok fabric-polyester composites. Polym Test 18: 181–198.    
  • 48. Beckermann GW, Pickering KL (2008) Engineering and evaluation of hemp fiber reinforced polypropylene composites: Fibre treatment and matrix modification. Compos Part A-Appl S 39: 979–988.    
  • 49. Ou CF, Ho MT, Lin JR (2004) Synthesis and characterization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with organoclay. J Appl Polym Sci 91: 140–145.    
  • 50. Tregub A, Karger-Kocsis J, Koennnecke K, et al. (1995) Deformation and Thermoelastic Behavior of Poly(aryl ether ketones). Macromolecules 28: 3890–3893.    
  • 51. Velikov V, Marand H (1997) Studies of the enthalpy relaxation and the "multiple melting" behavior of semicrystalline poly(arylene ether ether ketone) (PEEk). J Therm Anal Calorim 49: 375–383.    


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Sadaf A. Abbasi, Lijing Wang, Mazhar H. Peerzada, Raj Ladani, , High Performance Technical Textiles, 2019, 407, 10.1002/9781119325062.ch14
  • 2. Sandhya Alice Varghese, Harikrishnan Pulikkalparambil, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, Suchart Siengchin, Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai, Novel biodegradable polymer films based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and Ceiba pentandra natural fibers for packaging applications, Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 2020, 25, 100538, 10.1016/j.fpsl.2020.100538

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2017, Suchart Siengchin, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved