Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Socio-economic determinants of landslide risk perception in Murree hills of Pakistan

1 University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan
2 Economics Department, Government Post Graduate College, Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
3 Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
4 Peshawar, Pakistan and Founder Director: Centre for Disaster Preparedness and Management (CDPM), University of Peshawar, Pakistan

Murree, located in the sub-Himalayan Mountains, with geographical position extending from 33°52′ to 33°59′ North and 73°24′ to 73°31′ East is the worst slide-affected area of Pakistan. This area is recurrently affected by landslides and causes severe damages to land, life lines, houses, livestock and human life. This article has tried to determine the socio-economic determinants of landslide risk perception in Murree hills of Pakistan. Information was collected from 200, randomly selected sample households through questionnaire survey. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and risk perceptions about landslides. Socio-economic variables affecting landslide risks were also determined through relevant literature. A binary logistic regression was used to find out determinants of landslide risk perception in the study area. Results revealed that out of five variables, three variables including educational level, location and past experience had significant impact on landslide risk perception. The study recommends important policy implications for preparedness and mitigation plans against landslides in the study area.
  Article Metrics


1. Solana MC, Kilburn CR (2003) Public awareness of landslide hazards: the Barranco de Tirajana, Gran Canaria, Spain. Geomorphology 54: 39–48.    

2. Nadim F, Kjekstad O, Peduzzi P, et al. (2006) Global landslide and avalanche hotspots. Landslides 3: 159–173.    

3. Ho MC, Shaw D, Lin S, et al. (2008) How do disaster characteristics influence risk perception? Risk Anal 28: 635–643.    

4. Papathoma-Köhle M, Neuhäuser B, Ratzinger K, et al. (2007) Elements at risk as a framework for assessing the vulnerability of communities to landslides. Nat Hazard Earth Eys 7: 765–779.    

5. Kamp U, Growley BJ, Khattak GA, et al. (2008) GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for the 2005 Kashmir earthquake region. Geomorphology 101: 631–642.    

6. Khattak GA, Owen LA, Kamp U, et al. (2010) Evolution of earthquake-triggered landslides in the Kashmir Himalaya, northern Pakistan. Geomorphology 115: 102–108.    

7. Khan AN (2001) Impact of landslide hazards on housing and related socio-economic characteristics in Murree (Pakistan). Pak Econ Soc Rev: 57–74.

8. Archer DR, Fowler HJ (2008) Using meteorological data to forecast seasonal runoff on the River Jhelum, Pakistan. J Hydrol 361: 10–23.    

9. Farooq S, Malik M (1996) Landslide Hazard Management and Control in Pakistan-A Review: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).

10. Pearce A (1987) Plan for demonstration in Tehsil Murree for improving landslide-stability by reforestation and drainage improvement. Consultant's Report to FAO/UNDP Project PAK/78/036.

11. Abbasi A, Khan M, Ishfaq M, et al. (2002) Slope failure and landslide mechanism in Murree area, North Pakistan. Geol Bull Univ Peshawar 35: 125–137.

12. Calvello M, Papa MN, Pratschke J, et al. (2016) Landslide risk perception: a case study in Southern Italy. Landslides 13: 349–360.    

13. Khan AN (1995) Landslide Hazards and Policy-Response in Pakistan: A Case Study of Murree. Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South: 35.

14. Owen LA, Kamp U, Khattak GA, et al. (2008) Landslides triggered by the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Geomorphology 94: 1–9.    

15. Khan AN, Collins AE, Qazi F (2011) Causes and extent of environmental impacts of landslide hazard in the Himalayan region: a case study of Murree, Pakistan. Nat Hazards 57: 413–434.    

16. Rahman A, Khan AN, Collins AE (2014) Analysis of landslide causes and associated damages in the Kashmir Himalayas of Pakistan. Nat Hazards 71: 803–821.    

17. EM-DAT. The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database.

18. Myers CA, Slack T, Singelmann J (2008) Social vulnerability and migration in the wake of disaster: the case of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Popul Env 29: 271–291.    

19. Eidsvig UM, McLean A, Vangelsten BV, et al. (2014) Assessment of socioeconomic vulnerability to landslides using an indicator-based approach: methodology and case studies. Bull Eng Geol Environ 73: 307–324.    

20. Kuhlicke C, Scolobig A, Tapsell S, et al. (2011) Contextualizing social vulnerability: findings from case studies across Europe. Nat Hazards 58: 789–810.    

21. Shirley WL, Boruff BJ, Cutter SL (2012) Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Hazards Vulnerability and Environmental Justice: Routledge. pp. 143–160.

22. Lin S, Shaw D, Ho MC (2008) Why are flood and landslide victims less willing to take mitigation measures than the public? Nat Hazards 44: 305–314.    

23. Siagian TH, Purhadi P, Suhartono S, et al. (2014) Social vulnerability to natural hazards in Indonesia: driving factors and policy implications. Nat Hazards 70: 1603–1617.    

24. Chen W, Cutter SL, Emrich CT, et al. (2013) Measuring social vulnerability to natural hazards in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. Int J Disaster Risk Sci 4: 169–181.    

25. Yoon DK (2012) Assessment of social vulnerability to natural disasters: a comparative study. Nat Hazards 63: 823–843.    

26. Zhou Y, Li N, Wu W, et al. (2014) Assessment of provincial social vulnerability to natural disasters in China. Nat Hazards 71: 2165–2186.    

27. Zou LL, Wei YM (2010) Driving factors for social vulnerability to coastal hazards in Southeast Asia: results from the meta-analysis. Nat Hazards 54: 901–929.    

28. Schmidtlein MC, Shafer JM, Berry M, et al. (2011) Modeled earthquake losses and social vulnerability in Charleston, South Carolina. Appl Geogr 31: 269–281.    

29. Rufat S, Tate E, Burton CG, et al. (2015) Social vulnerability to floods: Review of case studies and implications for measurement. IJDRR 14: 470–486.

30. Kellens W, Zaalberg R, Neutens T, et al. (2011) An analysis of the public perception of flood risk on the Belgian coast. Risk Analysis31: 1055–1068.

31. Sjöberg L, Moen BE, Rundmo T (2004) Explaining risk perception. An evaluation of the psychometric paradigm in risk perception research 10: 665–612.

32. Raaijmakers R, Krywkow J, van der Veen A (2008) Flood risk perceptions and spatial multi-criteria analysis: an exploratory research for hazard mitigation. Nat Hazards 46: 307–322.    

33. Burn DH (1999) Perceptions of flood risk: a case study of the Red River flood of 1997. Water Resour Res 35: 3451–3458.    

34. Ludy J, Kondolf GM (2012) Flood risk perception in lands "protected" by 100-year levees. Nat Hazards 61: 829–842.    

35. Sjöberg L (2000) Factors in risk perception. Risk Anal 20: 1–12.    

36. Armaş I, Avram E (2009) Perception of flood risk in Danube Delta, Romania. Nat Hazards 50: 269–287.    

37. Government of Pakistan (GOP) (1999). 1998 district census report of Rawalpindi. Population census organization of Pakistan, Islamabad.

38. Yamane T (1973) Statistics: An introductory analysis.

39. Salvati P, Bianchi C, Fiorucci F, et al. (2014) Perception of flood and landslide risk in Italy: a preliminary analysis. Nat Hazard Earth Eys 14: 2589–2603.    

40. Landeros-Mugica K, Urbina-Soria J, Alcántara-Ayala I (2016) The good, the bad and the ugly: on the interactions among experience, exposure and commitment with reference to landslide risk perception in México. Nat Hazards 80: 1515–1537.    

41. Sudmeier-Rieux K, Jaquet S, Derron MH, et al. (2012) A case study of coping strategies and landslides in two villages of Central-Eastern Nepal. Appl Geogr 32: 680–690.    

42. Pilgrim NK (1999) Landslides, Risk and Decision making in Kinnaur District: Bridging the Gap between Science and Public Opinion. Disasters 23: 45–65.    

43. Larsen M (2008) Rainfall-triggered landslides, anthropogenic hazards, and mitigation strategies. Adv Geosci 14: 147–153.    

44. Kreibich H, Thieken AH, Petrow T, et al. (2005) Flood loss reduction of private households due to building precautionary measures--lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002. Nat hazard earth sys 5: 117–126.    

45. Grothmann T, Reusswig F (2006) People at risk of flooding: why some residents take precautionary action while others do not. Nat Hazards 38: 101–120.    

46. Miceli R, Sotgiu I, Settanni M (2008) Disaster preparedness and perception of flood risk: A study in an alpine valley in Italy. J Environ Psychol 28: 164–173.    

47. Botzen W, Aerts J, Van Den Bergh J (2009) Dependence of flood risk perceptions on socioeconomic and objective risk factors. Water Resour Res 45.

48. Siegrist M, Gutscher H (2006) Flooding risks: A comparison of lay people's perceptions and expert's assessments in Switzerland. Risk Anal 26: 971–979.    

© 2018 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved