Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Assessment of a three-dimensional baroclinic circulation model of the Tagus estuary (Portugal)

National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal

Special Issues: Marine and Coastal Ecosystems

Circulation patterns and physical regimes play a major role in estuarine ecosystems. Understanding how different drivers, like climate change, may affect the estuarine dynamics is thus fundamental to guarantee the preservation of the ecological and economical values of these areas. The Tagus estuary (Portugal) supports diverse uses and activities, some of which may be negatively affected by changes in the hydrodynamics and salinity dynamics. Numerical models have been widely used in this estuary to support its management. However, a detailed understanding of the three-dimensional estuarine circulation is still needed. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic baroclinic model was implemented and assessed using the modeling system SCHISM. The model assessment was performed for contrasting conditions in order to evaluate the robustness of the parametrization. Results show the ability of the model to represent the main salinity and water temperature patterns in the Tagus estuary, including the horizontal and vertical gradients under different environmental conditions and, in particular, river discharges. The model setup, in particular the vertical grid resolution and the advection scheme, affects the model ability to reproduce the vertical stratification. The TVD numerical scheme offers the best representation of the stratification under high river discharges. A classification of the Tagus estuary based on the Venice system regarding the salinity distribution for extreme river discharges indicates a significant upstream progression of the salt water during drought periods, which may affect some of the activities in the upper estuary (e.g., agriculture). The model developed herein will be used in further studies on the effects of climate change on the physical and ecological dynamics of the Tagus estuary.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords SCHISM modelling system; salinity; temperature; Venice system; estuarine circulation

Citation: Marta Rodrigues, André B. Fortunato. Assessment of a three-dimensional baroclinic circulation model of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). AIMS Environmental Science, 2017, 4(6): 763-787. doi: 10.3934/environsci.2017.6.763

References

  • 1. Geyer WR, MacCready P (2014) The Estuarine Circulation. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 46: 175-197.    
  • 2. Jay DA, Smith JD (1990) Circulation, density distribution and neap-spring transitions in the Columbia River estuary. Prog Oceanogr 25: 81-112.    
  • 3. Kärnä T, Baptista AM (2016) Evaluation of a long-term hindcast simulation for the Columbia River estuary. Ocean Model 99: 1-14.    
  • 4. Guerreiro M, Fortunato AB, Freire P, et al. (2015) Evolution of the hydrodynamics of the Tagus estuary (Portugal) in the 21st century. Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada 15: 65-80.
  • 5. Tavares AO, Santos PP, Freire P, et al. (2015) Flooding hazard in the Tagus estuarine area: The challenge of scale in vulnerability assessment. Environ Sci Policy 51: 238-255.    
  • 6. Rilo A, Freire P, Ceia R, et al. (2012) Human effects on estuarine shoreline decadal evolution. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-10863, EGU General Assembly.
  • 7. Cabeçadas G, Brogueira MJ (1997) Sediments in a Portuguese coastal area-pool sizes of mobile and immobile forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Mar Freshwater Res 48: 559-563.    
  • 8. Costa M, Cabral H (1999) Changes in the Tagus nursery function for commercial fish species: some perspectives for management. Aquat Ecol 33: 287.    
  • 9. Cabeçadas G, Monteiro MT, Brogueira MJ, et al. (2004) Caracterização ambiental da zona costeira adjacente aos estuários do Tejo e do Sado. IPIMAR, Lisbon, Portugal, 41 pp.
  • 10. Brogueira MJ, Oliveira MR, Cabeçadas G (2007) Phytoplankton community structure defined by key environmental variables in Tagus estuary, Portugal. Mar Environ Res 64: 616-628.    
  • 11. Gameiro C, Brotas V (2010) Patterns of phytoplankton variability in the Tagus Estuary. Estuar Coast 33: 311-323.    
  • 12. Valente AS, Silva JCB (2009) On the observability of the fortnightly cycle of the Tagus estuary turbid plume using MODIS ocean colour images. J Marine Syst 75: 131-137.    
  • 13. Fortunato AB, Oliveira A, Baptista AM (1999) On the effect of tidal flats on the hydrodynamics of the Tagus estuary. Oceanol Acta 22: 31-44.
  • 14. Neves FS (2010) Dynamics and hydrology of the Tagus estuary: results from in situ observations. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
  • 15. Fortunato AB, Baptista AM, Luettich Jr. RA (1997) A three-dimensional model of tidal currents in the mouth of the Tagus Estuary. Cont Shelf Res 17: 1689-1714.    
  • 16. Oliveira A, Baptista A (1997) Diagnostic modeling of residence times in estuaries. Water Resour Res 33: 1935-1946.    
  • 17. Braunschweig F, Martins F, Chambel P, et al. (2003) A methodology to estimate renewal time scales in estuaries: the Tagus Estuary case. Ocean Dynam 53: 137-145.    
  • 18. Vargas C, Oliveira FSBF, Oliveira A, et al. (2008) Flood vulnerability analysis of an estuarine beach: application to Alfeite sand spit (Tagus Estuary). Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada / Integrated Coastal Zone Management Journal, 8: 25-43.
  • 19. Costa RT, Rodrigues M, Oliveira A, et al. (2012) Alerta precoce da contaminação fecal para o estuário do Tejo: implementação preliminar do modelo hidrodinâmico e de contaminação fecal. Atas das 2as Jornadas de Engenharia Hidrográfica, Lisboa, 77-80.
  • 20. Rodrigues M, Costa J, Jesus G, et al. (2013) Application of an estuarine and coastal nowcast-forecast information system to the Tagus estuary. Proceedings of the 6th SCACR, Lisbon, 10 pp.
  • 21. Vaz N, Mateus M, Plecha S, et al. (2015) Modeling SST and chlorophyll patterns in a coupled estuary-coastal system of Portugal: The Tagus case study. J Marine Syst 147: 123-137.    
  • 22. Rodrigues M, Fortunato AB, Freire P (2016) Salinity evolution in the Tagus estuary relative to climate change. 4as Jornadas de Engenharia Hidrográfica, Instituto Hidrográfico, Lisboa, 179-182.
  • 23. Castanheiro JM (1986) Distribution, transport and sedimentation of suspended matter in the Tejo Estuary. In Estuarine processes: an application to the Tagus Estuary. Secretaria de Estado do Ambiente e Recursos Naturais, Lisboa, 75-90.
  • 24. APA – Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente (2012) Plano de Gestão da Região Hidrográfica do Tejo, Relatório Técnico – Síntese. Ministério da Agricultura, do Mar, do Ambiente e do Ordenamento do Território.
  • 25. Rodrigues R, Cunha R, Rocha F (2009) Evaluation of river inflows to the Portuguese estuaries based on their duration curves (in Portuguese). EMMA Project Report, 40 pp.
  • 26. Canas A, Santos A, Leitão P (2009) Effect of large-scale atmospheric pressure changes on water level in the Tagus estuary. J Coastal Res 56: 1627-1631.
  • 27. Oliveira FSBF (2000) Numerical simulation of wave propagation in the entrance of the Tagus estuary, ML Spaulding, HL Butler (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, ASCE, 510-525.
  • 28. Rusu L, Bernardino M, Guedes Soares C (2011) Modelling the influence of currents on wave propagation at the entrance of the Tagus estuary. Ocean Eng 38: 1174-1183.    
  • 29. Fortunato AB, Freire P, Bertin X, et al. (2017) A numerical study of the February 15, 1941 Iberian storm in the Tagus estuary. Cont Shelf Res 144: 50-64.    
  • 30. Freire P, Ferreira Ó, Taborda R, et al. (2009) Morphodynamics of fetch-limited beaches in contrasting environments. J Coastal Res 56: 183-187.
  • 31. Rusu L, Bernardino M, Guedes Soares C (2009) Influence of wind resolution on the prediction of waves generated in an estuary. J Coastal Res 56: 1419-1423.
  • 32. Schloen J, Stanev EV, Grashorn S (2017) Wave-current interactions in the southern North Sea: The impact on salinity. Ocean Model 111: 19-37.    
  • 33. Uncles RJ, Bale AJ, Howland RJM, et al. (1983) Salinity of surface water in a partially-mixed estuary and its dispersion and low run-off. Oceanol Acta 6: 289-296.
  • 34. Fortunato AB, Oliveira A, Alves E (2002) Circulation and salinity intrusion in the Guadiana Estuary. Thalassas 18: 43-65.
  • 35. Portela L (1996) Modelação matemática de processos hidrodinâmicos e de qualidade da água no estuário do Tejo. Ph.D Thesis, Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal.
  • 36. Silva MC (2003) Instrumentos de apoio à gestão de estuários. Indicadores ambientais. PhD Thesis, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
  • 37. Zhang YJ, Ye F, Stanev EV, et al. (2016) Seamless cross-scale modeling with SCHISM. Ocean Model 102: 64-81.    
  • 38. Zhang Y, Baptista AM (2008) SELFE: A semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-element model for cross-scale ocean circulation. Ocean Model 21: 71-96.    
  • 39. Roland A, Zhang YJ, Wang HV, et al. (2012) A fully coupled 3D wave-current interaction model on unstructured grids. J Geophys Res 117: C00J33.
  • 40. Pinto L, Fortunato AB, Zhang Y, et al. (2012) Development and validation of a three-dimensional morphodynamic modelling system for non-cohesive sediments. Ocean Model 57-58:1-14.    
  • 41. Guerin T, Bertin X, Dodet G (2016) A numerical scheme for coastal morphodynamic modelling on unstructured grids. Ocean Model 104: 45-53.    
  • 42. Rodrigues M, Oliveira A, Queiroga H, et al. (2009) Three-dimensional modeling of the lower trophic levels in the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Ecol Model 220: 1274-1290.    
  • 43. Rodrigues M, Oliveira A, Guerreiro M, et al. (2011) Modeling fecal contamination in the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal). Ocean Dynam 61: 841-856.    
  • 44. Azevedo A, Oliveira A, Fortunato AB, et al. (2014) A cross-scale numerical modeling system for management support of oil spill accidents. Mar Pollut Bull 80: 132-147.    
  • 45. David LM, Rodrigues M, Fortunato AB, et al. (2015) Sub-chapter 1.4 - Demonstration system for early warning of faecal contamination in recreational waters in Lisbon. In Climate Change, Water Supply and Sanitation: Risk Assessment, Management, Mitigation and Reduction, 31-40. London: IWA Publishing.
  • 46. Ye F, Zhang Y, Friedrichs M, et al. (2016) A 3D, cross-scale, baroclinic model with implicit vertical transport for the Upper Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Ocean Model 107: 82-96.    
  • 47. Chao Y, Farrara JD, Zhang H, et al. (2017) Development, implementation, and validation of a modeling system for the San Francisco Bay and Estuary. Estuar Coast Shelf S 194: 40-56.    
  • 48. Kärnä T, Baptista AM, Lopez JE, et al. (2015) Numerical modeling of circulation in high-energy estuaries: A Columbia River estuary benchmark. Ocean Model 88: 54-71.    
  • 49. Silva MC, Calvão T, Figueiredo H (1986) Estudo Ambiental do Estuário do Tejo, Controlo da qualidade da água, Resultados referentes as observações realizadas em 1982 e 1983. Relatório Projecto Tejo n.º9. Secretaria de Estado do Ambiente e Recursos Naturais, Lisboa.
  • 50. Turner P, Baptista AM (1993) ACE/gredit User's Manual. Software for Semi-automatic Generation of Two-Dimensional Finite Element Grids. Center for Coastal and Land-Margin Research, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology.
  • 51. Fortunato AB, Bruneau N, Azevedo A, et al. (2011) Automatic improvement of unstructured grids for coastal simulations. J Coastal Res 64: 1028-1032.
  • 52. Fernández-Nóvoa D, Gómez-Gesteira M, Mendes R, et al. (2017) Influence of main forcing affecting the Tagus turbid plume under high river discharges using MODIS imagery. PLOS One, 27pp.
  • 53. Salgueiro AR, Machado MJ, Barriendos M, et al. (2013) Flood magnitudes in the Tagus River (Iberian Peninsula) and its stochastic relationship with daily North Atlantic Oscillation since mid-19th Century. J Hydrol 502: 191-201.    
  • 54. Fortunato AB, Oliveira A, Rogeiro J, et al. (2017) Operational forecast framework applied to extreme sea levels at regional and local scales. J Oper Oceanogr 10: 1-15.    
  • 55. Fortunato AB, Li K, Bertin X, et al. (2016) Determination of extreme sea levels along the Iberian Atlantic coast. Ocean Eng 111/1: 471-482.
  • 56. Maraldi C, Chanut J, Levier B, et al. Mercator Research and Development Team (2013) NEMO on the shelf: assessment of the Iberia-Biscay-Ireland configuration. Ocean Sci 9: 745-771.    
  • 57. Zeng X, Zhao M, Dickinson RE (1998) Intercomparison of bulk aerodynamic algorithms for the computation of sea surface fluxes using TOGA COARE and TAO data. J Climate 11: 2628-2644.    
  • 58. Richling A, Meredith E, Vagenas C, et al. (2015) Dynamical downscaling of European reanaysis to 12km and daily values for the period 1979/2014. Deliverable 2.1. BINGO Project, 44 pp.
  • 59. Tolman HL (2009) User manual and system documentation of WAVEWATCH III, version 3.14. NOAA/NWS/NCEP/MMAB Technical Note 276, 194 pp.
  • 60. Wilmott CJ (1981) On the validation of models. Phys Geogr 2: 184-194.
  • 61. Jolliff J, Kindle J, Shulman I, et al. (2009) Summary diagrams for coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model skill assessment. J Marine Syst 76: 46-82.
  • 62. Martyr-Koller RC, Kernkamp HWJ, Dam A van, et al. (2017) Application of an unstructured 3D finite volume numerical model to flows and salinity dynamics in the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Estuar Coast Shelf S 192: 86-107.    
  • 63. Carriker MR (1967) Ecology of estuarine benthic invertebrates: A perspective. Lauff G.H. (eds.) Estuaries. AAAS 83: 442-487.
  • 64. Rodrigues M (2012) Effects of the climatic factors and anthropogenic actions in the Ria de Aveiro. PhD Thesis, Aveiro, Portugal.
  • 65. Taupp T, Wetzel MA (2014) Leaving the beaten track-Approaches beyond the Venice System to classify estuarine waters according to salinity. Estuar Coast Shelf S 148: 27-35.    
  • 66. Macedo MEZ (2006) Caracterização de Caudais, Rio Tejo. CCDR de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo, Lisboa, 30 pp.

 

This article has been cited by

  • 1. Qianqian Liu, Fei Chai, Richard Dugdale, Yi Chao, Huijie Xue, Shivanesh Rao, Frances Wilkerson, John Farrara, Hongchun Zhang, Zhengui Wang, Yinglong Zhang, San Francisco Bay Nutrients and Plankton Dynamics as Simulated by a Coupled Hydrodynamic-Ecosystem Model, Continental Shelf Research, 2018, 10.1016/j.csr.2018.03.008
  • 2. Marta Rodrigues, André B. Fortunato, Paula Freire, Saltwater Intrusion in the Upper Tagus Estuary during Droughts, Geosciences, 2019, 9, 9, 400, 10.3390/geosciences9090400
  • 3. A. Oliveira, A.B. Fortunato, J. Rogeiro, J. Teixeira, A. Azevedo, L. Lavaud, X. Bertin, J. Gomes, M. David, J. Pina, M. Rodrigues, P. Lopes, OPENCoastS: An open-access service for the automatic generation of coastal forecast systems, Environmental Modelling & Software, 2019, 104585, 10.1016/j.envsoft.2019.104585
  • 4. Nuno Vaz, Marcos Mateus, Lígia Pinto, Ramiro Neves, João Miguel Dias, The Tagus Estuary as a Numerical Modeling Test Bed: A Review, Geosciences, 2019, 10, 1, 4, 10.3390/geosciences10010004

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2017, Marta Rodrigues, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved