Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Photogrammetric analysis of rubble mound breakwaters scale model tests

1 LNEC, Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Núcleo de Portos e Estruturas Marítimas, Av. do Brasil 101, 1700-066 Lisboa, Portugal
2 LAETA, IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1,1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
3 ADEC-ISEL, IPL - Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa Av. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1,1959-007 Lisboa, Portugal
4 ADM-ISEL, IPL - Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa Av. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1,1959-007 Lisboa, Portugal
5 GI-MOSM, Grupo de Investigacção em Modelacção e Optimizac¸ ão de Sistemas MultifuncionaisISEL, IPL - Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa Av. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1,1959-007 Lisboa, Portugal

The main goal of this paper is to develop a photogrammetric method in order to obtain arobust tool for damage assessment and quantification of rubble-mound armour layers during physicalscale model tests. With the present work, an innovative approach based on a reduced number ofdigital photos is proposed to support the identification of affected areas. This work considers twosimple digital photographs recording the instants before and after the completion of the physicaltest. Mathematical techniques were considered in the development of the procedures, enabling thetracking of image differences between photos. The procedures were developed using an open-sourceapplication, Scilab, nevertheless they are not platform dependent. The procedures developed enablethe location and identity of eroded areas in the breakwater armour layer, as well as the possibilityof quantifying them. This ability is confirmed through the calculation of correlation coefficients ineach step of the search for the more damaged area. It is also possible to make an assessment of themovement of armour layer units.
  Article Metrics


1. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (2002) Coastal Engineering Manual, Engineering Manual 1110- 2-1100. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C.

2. Fraštia F (2005) Possibilities of using inexpensive digital cameras in applications of close-range photogrammetry. Slovak J Civ Eng 2: 20-28.

3. Beraldin JA (2004) Integration of Laser Scanning and Close-Range Photogrammetry The Last Decade and Beyond. In: XXth International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Congress. Commission VII, Istanbul, Turkey. 972-983.

4. Percoco G, Lavecchia F, Sánchez-Salmerón A (2015) Preliminary Study on the 3D Digitization of Millimeter Scale Products by Means of Photogrammetry. Procedia CIRP 33: 257-262.

5. Rieke-Zapp D, Nearing M (2005) Digital Close Range Photogrammetry for Measurement of Soil Erosion. Photogramm Rec 20: 69-87.

6. Jauregui D, White K, Woodward C, et al. (2003) Noncontact Photogrammetric Measurement of Vertical Bridge Deflection. J Bridge Eng 8: 212-222.

7. Celestino Ordóñez, Joaqu´ın Martínez, Pedro Arias, et al. (2010) Measuring building faades with a low-cost close-range photogrammetry system. Automat Constr 19: 742-749.

8. Fonstad M, Dietrich J, Courville B, et al. (2013) Topographic structure from motion: a new

9. Westoby MJ, Brasington J, Glasser NF, et al. (2012) Structure-from- Motion photogrammetry: A

10. Zubair Ahmed Memon, Muhd Zaimi Abd. Majid, Mushairry Mustaffar (2006) The use of photogrammetry techniques to evaluate the construction project progress. Jurnal Teknologi 44: 1-15.

11. Kaufman J, Rennie A, ClementM(2015) Single Camera Photogrammetry for Reverse Engineering and Fabrication of Ancient and Modern Artifacts. Procedia CIRP 36: 223-229.

12. Hanan H, Suwardhi D, Nurhasanah T, et al. (2015) Batak Toba cultural heritage and close-range photogrammetry. Procedia - Soc Behav Sci 184: 187-195.

13. Percoco G (2011) Digital Close Range Photogrammetry for 3d Body Scanning for Custom Made Garments. Photogramm Rec 26: 73-90.

14. Burcharth H, Andersen T, Lara J (2014) Upgrade of coastal defence structures against increased loadings caused by climate change: A first methodological approach. Coast Eng 87: 112-121.

15. Van Gent M (2014) Oblique wave attack on rubble mound breakwaters. Coast Eng 88: 43-54.    

16. Puente I, Sande J, González-Jorge H, et al. (2014) Novel image analysis approach to the terrestrial lidar monitoring of damage in rubble mound breakwaters. Ocean Eng 91: 273-280.

17. Fortes C, Reis M, Neves M, et al. (2014) A modelacção física no apoio ao projeto de obras mar´ıtimas. Construcção Magazine 62: 34-38.

18. White FM, Fluid Mechanics McGraw Hill, 7th ed , 2008.

19. Scilab Enterprises. Scilab: Free and Open Source software for numerical computation, 2013.

20. Shigi Y, Sivp-scilab image and video processing toolbox, 2011. Available from: http://sivp.sourceforge.net.

21. Poynton C, Digital Video and HDTV Algorithms and Interfaces, 2003. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco.

22. Stathaki T, Image Fusion: Algorithms and Applications. Academic Press, 2008.

23. Hofland B, Disco M, Van Gent MRA, 2014. Damage characterization of rubble mound roundheads. Proc. CoastLab2014. Varna, Bulgaria.

24. Courela JM, Carvalho RF, Lemos R, et al., 2015. Rubble-mound breakwater armour units displacement analysis by means of digital images processing methods in scale models. Proc. 2nd IWHS: Data Validation, IAHR, Coimbra, Portugal.

Copyright Info: © 2016, José A. Rodrigues, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved