Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Survival, growth and seed mass in a mixed tree species planting for Atlantic Forest restoration

1 Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul at Chapecó, Av. Fernando Machado, 108 E, 89802-112, Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.
2 UNIJUÍ—Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.
3 IRDeR—Instituto Regional de Desenvolvimento Rural/ FIDENE, Augusto Pestana, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.
4 UNIJUÍ—Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Selection of tree species is a key aspect of restoration in megadiverse biomes such as the Atlantic Forest, especially in degraded areas with past intensive land use, which usually present severe limiting conditions. The species must have high survival and growth, not only in the transition between germination and seedling but also between seedling and adult plant until allowing the establishment of a self-sustaining and renewable community. In order to reach this goal, restoration initiatives carried out in the Atlantic Forest have employed high-diversity plantings of tree species from different successional guilds. Notwithstanding, long-term silvicultural knowledge is scarce for the native species from this biome, and the effectiveness of these models is controversial. Our investigation has compared the survival and growth of species and guilds in high-diversity tree species plantings in areas with previous agricultural intensive use. The species and guilds were also compared with respect to seed mass since this parameter is pointed out as an indicator of high survival in early stages. Pioneer and secondary species did not present differences in survival and seed mass, although pioneers exhibited greater growth rate. The late successional (LS) species had lower survival and growth, and higher seed mass. Survival after 8 months and between 8–15 months after seedling planting was inversely correlated with seed mass (r2 = 0.35 and r2 = 0.36, P < 0.001). On the other hand, survival after 8 months was correlated with relative growth rate (RGR) in the same periods of time (r2 = 0.34, P < 0.001). Overall average survival was 41% after 15 months, with the survival of LS species at an average of 12%. Data suggests that the inclusion of LS seedlings could impair the efficacy of restoration during early phases, at least in highly degraded areas. Equally, the inclusion of species with high seed mass should be considered with caution.
  Article Metrics


1. Joly CA, Metzger JP, Tabarelli M (2014) Experiences from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: ecological findings and conservation initiatives. New Phytol 204: 459-473.    

2. Ribeiro MC, Metzger JP, Martensen AC, et al. (2009) The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: how much is left, and how is the remaining forest distributed? Implications for conservation. Biol Conserv 142: 1141-1153.

3. Rodrigues RR, Lima RAF, Gandolfi S, et al. (2009) On the restoration of high diversity forests: 30 years of experience in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biol Conserv 142: 1242-1251.    

4. Coelho GC (2010) Restauração florestal em pequenas propriedades: desafios e oportunidades. In: Hüller A (Ed.) Gestão Ambiental nos Municípios: Instrumentos e Experiências na Administração Pública. Santo Ângelo: FURI, 195-215.

5. Rodrigues RR, Gandolfi S, Nave AG, et al. (2011) Large-scale ecological restoration of high-diversity tropical forests in SE Brazil. For Ecol Manage 261: 1605-1613.    

6. Sampaio AB, Holl KD, Scariot A (2007) Does restoration enhance regeneration of seasonal deciduous forests in pastures in central Brazil? Rest Ecol 15: 462-471.    

7. Engel VL, Parrotta JA (2001) An evaluation of direct seeding for reforestation of degraded lands in central São Paulo State, Brazil. For Ecol Manage 152: 169-181.    

8. Kageyama PY, Castro CFA, Carpanezzi AA 1989. Implantação de matas ciliares: estratégia para auxiliar a sucessão secundária. In: Barbosa L M (ed.) Simpósio sobre mata ciliar. Fundação Cargill, Campinas, Brazil, 130-143.

9. Camargo JLC, Ferraz IDK, Imakawa AM (2002). Rehabilitation of degraded areas of Central Amazonia using direct sowing of forest tree seeds. Rest Ecol 10: 636-644.    

10. Uhl C, Buschbacher R, Serrão EAS (1988). Abandoned pastures in Eastern Amazonia. I. Patterns of plant succession. J Ecol 76: 663- 681.

11. Pompéia S (2005) Recuperação da vegetação da Serra do Mar em áreas afetadas pela poluição atmosférica de Cubatão: uma análise histórica. In: Galvão APM, Porfírio-Da-Silva V (Eds.). Restauração Florestal—Fundamentos e Estudos de Caso. Colombo: Embrapa Florestas, 119-143.

12. Campoe OC, Stape JL, Mendes JCT (2010) Can intensive management accelerate the restoration of Brazil’s Atlantic forests? For Ecol Manage 259: 1808-1814.    

13. Barbosa LM, Barbosa JM, Barbosa KC, et al. (2003) Recuperação florestal com espécies nativas no Estado de São Paulo: pesquisas apontam mudanças necessárias. Florestar estat 6: 28-34.

14. Martínez-Garza C, Howe HF (2003) Restoring tropical diversity: beating the time tax on species loss. J Appl Ecol 40: 423-429.    

15. Newmaster SG, Bell FW, Roosenboom CR, et al. (2006) Restoration of floral diversity through plantations on abandoned agricultural land. Can J For Res 36: 1218-1235.    

16. Trindade DFV, Coelho GC (2012) Woody species recruitment under monospecific plantations of pioneer trees - facilitation or inhibition? iForest 5: 1-5.    

17. Souza FM, Batista JLF (2004) Restoration of seasonal semideciduous forests in Brazil: influence of age and restoration design on forest structure. For Ecol Manage 191: 185-200.    

18. Denslow JS (1987) Tropical rainforest gaps and tree species diversity. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18: 431-451.    

19. Swaine MD, Whitmore TC (1988) On the definition of ecological species groups in tropical rain forests. Vegetatio 75: 81-86.    

20. Budowski G (1965) Distribution of American rain forest species in the light of successional process. Turrialba 15: 40-42.

21. Denslow JS (1980) Gap partioning among tropical rain forest trees. Biotropica 12: 47-55.    

22. Liebsch D, Marques MC, Goldenberg R (2008) How long does the Atlantic Rain Forest take to recover after a disturbance? Changes in species composition and ecological features during secondary succession. Biol Conserv 141: 1717-1725.

23. Ferretti AR, Kageyama PY, Árbocz GF, et al. (1995) Classificação das espécies arbóreas em grupos ecofisiológicos para revegetação com nativas no estado de São Paulo. Florestar estat 3: 73-77.

24. Coelho GC, Rigo MS, Libardoni JB, et al. (2011) Understory structure in two successional stage of Semi-deciduous Seasonal Forest remnant of Southern Brazil. Biota Neotrop 11: 63-74.

25. Parrotta JA, Turnbull JW, Jones N (1997) Catalyzing native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands. For Ecol Manage 99: 1-7.    

26. Holl KD, Aide TM (2011) When and where to actively restore ecosystems? For Ecol Manage 261: 1558-1563.    

27. Kageyama PY, Gandara FB (2000) Recuperação de áreas ciliares. In: Rodrigues R R, Leitão Filho H F (Eds). Mata ciliares: uma abordagem multidisciplinar. São Paulo: EDUSP/FAPESP. 249-269.

28. Hooper E, Condit R, Legendre P (2002) Responses of 20 native tree species to reforestation strategies for abandoned farmland in Panama. Ecol Appl 12: 1626-1641.

29. St-Denis A, Messier C, Kneeshaw D (2013) Seed size, the only factor positively affecting direct seeding success in an abandoned field in Quebec, Canada. Forests 4: 500-516.    

30. Westoby M, Falster DS, Moles AT, et al. (2002) Plant ecological strategies: some leading dimensions of variation between species. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 33: 125-159.    

31. Howe HF, Richter WM (1982) Effects of seed size on seedling size in Virola surinamensis: a within and between tree analysis. Oecologia 53: 347-351.    

32. Green PT, Juniper PA (2004) Seed mass, seedling herbivory and the reserve effect in tropical rainforest seedlings. Funct Ecol 18: 539-547.    

33. Osunkoya OO, Ash JE, Hopkins MS, et al. (1992) Factors affecting survival of tree seedlings in North Queensland rainforests. Oecologia 91: 569-578.    

34. Osunkoya OO, Ash JE, Hopkins MS, et al. (1994) Influence of seed size and seedling ecological attributes on shade-tolerance of rain-forest tree species in northern Queensland. J Ecol 82: 149-163.    

35. Baraloto C, Forget PM, Goldberg DE (2005) Seed mass, seedling size and neotropical tree seedling Establishment. J. Ecol 93: 1156-1166.    

36. Poorter L, Wright SJ, Paz H, et al. (2008) Are functional traits good predictors of demographic rates? Evidence from five neotropical forests. Ecology 89: 1908-1920.

37. Cole RJ, Holl KD, Keene CL, et al. (2011) Direct seeding of late-successional trees to restore tropical montane Forest. For Ecol Manage 261: 1590-1597.    

38. Benvenuti-Ferreira G, Coelho GC, Schirmer J, et al. ((2009) Dendrometry and litterfall of neotropical pioneer and early secondary tree species. Biota Neotrop 9: 65-71.

39. Carvalho PER (2003-2014). Espécies arbóreas brasileiras (Vols. 1-5). Brasília: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica.

40. Alvares CA, Stape JL, Sentelhas PC, et al. (2013) Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Met Zeit 22: 711-728.

41. Ramírez-Marcial N, González-Espinosa M, Camacho-Cruz A, et al. (2010) Forest restoration in Lagunas de Montebello National Park, Chiapas, Mexico. Ecol Rest 28: 354-360.    

42. Martínez-Garza VP, Ricker M, Campos A, et al. (2005) Restoring tropical biodiversity: leaf traits predict growth and survival of late-successional trees in early-successional environments. For Ecol Manage 217: 365-379.    

43. Siddique I, Engel VL, Parrotta JA, et al. (2008) Dominance of legume trees alters nutrient relations in mixed species forest restoration plantings within seven years. Biogeochemistry 88: 89-101.    

44. Martínez-Garza C, Bongers F, Poorter L (2013) Are functional traits good predictors of species performance in restoration plantings in tropical abandoned pastures? For Ecol Manage 303: 35-45.    

45. Moles AT, Westoby M (2006) Seed size and plant strategy across the whole life cycle. Oikos 113: 91-105.    

46. Tunjai P, Elliot S (2012) Effects of seed traits on the success of direct seeding for restoring southern Thailand’s lowland evergreen forest ecosystem. New for 43: 319-333.    

47. Flores O, Hérault B, Delcamp M, et al. (2014) Functional traits help predict post-disturbance demography of tropical trees. PloS one 9: e105022.    

48. Melo FPL, Lemire D, Tabarelli M (2007) Extirpation of large-seeded seedlings from the edge of a large Brazilian Atlantic forest fragment. Écoscience 14: 124-129.

49. Easdale TA, Healey JR (2009) Resource-use-related traits correlate with population turnover rates, but not stem diameter growth rates, in 29 subtropical montane tree species. Persp Plant Ecol Evol Syst 11: 203-218.    

50. Stehmann JR, Forzza RC, Salino A, et al. (2009) Plantas da Floresta Atlântica. Rio de Janeiro: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.

51. Oliveira-Filho AT, Budke AT, Jarenkow JC, et al. (2015) Delving into the variations in tree species composition and richness across South American subtropical Atlantic and Pampean forests. J Plant Ecol 8: 242-260.

Copyright Info: © 2016, Geraldo Ceni Coelho, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved