Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

The roles of governments and other actors in adaptation to climate change and variability: The examples of agriculture and coastal communities

1 Geography, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada and School of Environmental Design, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
2 Geography, Laboratory Laplec, University of Liege, Belgium.
3 Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
4 Program Analyst, United Nation Development Programme.
5 Team Leader, European Union Climate Change Project in Haïti.
6 Geography, University of Montreal.
7 Geography, University of Montreal, Consultant (Sustainable Development, Environment, Impact Studies).

There is little question now about the reality of climate change and the importance of adaptation of human activities in reducing the negative impacts of climate change and variability (CCV) as well as the reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in mitigating this unprecedented phenomenon. This article focuses on adaptation and the adaptive capacity of actors (decision-takers) of all sorts to adopt appropriate strategies and increase their adaptive capacity to cope with CCV by focusing on two types of human activity—agriculture and agricultural territories and coastal communities, both of which have very important roles to play in human society. Given the recent high profile given to the outcomes of COP21 and particularly the potential transfer of significant funding from developed to developing countries to support their battle against CCV, the emphasis has shifted again to the role of governments in this battle. We argue that governments have important roles to play both in developed and developing countries, but supporting funding of initiatives and for developing pertinent action plans is probably the least of our worries! Funding can be important but alone does not solve the challenges, it is what is accomplished with funding that is all important, and this requires the development of effective and pertinent adaptive capacities on the part of the different actors involved in what becomes a co-construction process. We argue that the roles of governments and other actors (collective as well as individual citizens and the activities that they are involved in) need to be better understood in order for this to happen. This is illustrated by research of different types on agriculture and coastal communities.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Association of British Insurers (2005) Financial risks of climate risk. ABI, London.

2. Huq N, Hugé J, Boon E, et al. (2015) Climate change impacts in agricultural communities in rural areas of coastal Bangladesh: A tale of many stories. Sustainability 7: 8437-8460.

3. IPCC (2012) Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Field CB, Barros V, Stocker et al. (eds.), Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA.

4. IPCC (2014a) Summary for policymakers. In: Field, C.B., Barros, V.R., Dokken, D.J. et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 1-32.

5. McEvoy D, Matczak P, Banaszak I, et al. (2010) Framing adaptation to climate-related extreme events. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15: 779-795.

6. Environment Canada (2013) Canada’s top ten weather stories for 2011. Richelieu Flooding…Quebec’s Longest-Lived Disaster.

7. Martins D (2014) The worst floods in Canadian history. The Weather Network, 23 June, 2014.

8. Libération (2011) Tempete-xynthia. Libération (24/02/2011) Available from: www.eration.fr/

9. Jongman B, Hochrainer-Stigler S, Feyen L, et al. (2014) Increasing stress on disaster-risk finance due to large floods. Nat Clim Chang 4: 264-268.    

10. Dunford R, Harrison PA, Jager J, et al. (2015) Exploring climate change vulnerability across sectors and scenarios using indicators of impacts and coping capacity. Climate Change 128: 339-354.

11. Bryant CR, Sarr MA, Délusca K (2016) Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change. The Netherlands, Springer. Available from: http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319313900.

12. Dilling L, Lackstrom K, Haywood B, et al. (2015) What stakeholder needs tell us about enabling adaptive capacity: The intersection of context and information provision across regions in the United States. Wea Climate Soc 7: 5-17.    

13. Bryant CR, Bousbaine AD, Akkari C, et al. (2016) Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability: Who Should Be Involved, Why and How? The Examples of Agriculture and Coastal Communities. Presentation in the congress Adaptation Canada, April 14th 2016.

14. Frankhauser S (1996) The potential costs of climate change adaptation. In: Smith J, Bhatti N, Menzhulin G, et al. (eds.), Adapting to Climate Change: An International Perspective. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, USA, 80-96.

15. Smith JB (1996) Using a decision matrix to assess climate change adaptation. In: Smith JB, Bhatti N, Menzhulin G, Benioff R, et al. (eds.), Adapting to Climate Change: An International Perspective. New York, Springer, 68-79.

16. Pielke RA (1998) Rethinking the role of adaptation in climate policy.Global Environmental Change 8:159-170.    

17. Ryley T, Chapman L (2012) Transport and climate change. Transport Sustainability 2: 369-378.    

18. Borenstein S (2013) Climate talk shifts from curbing CO2 to adapting. The Associated Press. Available from:
http://globalnation.inquirer.net/77731/climate-talk-shifts-from-curbing-global-warming-to-adapting#ixzz2WWvPzvwd.

19. White C (2013) The other job. The Carbon Pilgrim. Available from:
http://carbonpilgrim.wordpress.com/2013/03/27/the-other-job/

20. University of Bern (2014) Impacts of climate change in Switzerland: Adaptation and mitigation must go hand in hand. Available from:
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/1403/14093656.htm

21. Finchelstein G, Stetter E (2015) Adaptation and mitigation: what are we talking about? Progressive for Climate. Available from:
www.progressivesforclimate.com/archives/1490?print=pdf

22. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (1992) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Text. World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environment Program, Geneva.

23. Klein RJT, MacIver DC (1999) Adaptation to alimate variability and change: Methodological issues. Mitig Adapt Strat GL 4: 189-198.    

24. Smit B, Burton I, Klein RJT, et al. (2000) An anatomy of adaptation to climate change and variability. Climatic Change 45: 223-251.    

25. Reilly J (1995) Climate change and global agriculture: recent findings and issues. Am J Agr Econ 77: 727-733.    

26. Risbey J, Kandlikar M, Dowlatabadi H, et al. (1999) Scale, context, and decision making in agricultural adaptation to climate variability and change. Mitig Adapt Strat GL 4: 137-165.    

27. Smit B, Skinner WM (2002) Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: A typology. In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 7: 85-114, 2002. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

28. Ilbery B (1985) Agricultural Geography: A Social and Economic Analysis. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

29. Bryant CR (1994) Strategic Management and Planning for Local and Community Economic Development: I. Econotrends Ltd., St. Eugène, Ontario.

30. Kandlikar M, Risbey J (2000) Agricultural impacts of climate change: If adaptation is the answer, what is the question? Climatic Change 45: 529-539.

31. Bryant CR, Akkari C, Bousbaine AD, et al. (2016) The Unintended Consequences of Government Action and Initiatives to Cope with Major Environmental Issues. Communication presented at the colloquium SALISES 2016, Georgetown, Barbados. Conference paper, 8.

32. Hamden R (2016) Planning for Climate Impacts that’s Delivering Results – Using Behaviour Change Approaches to Deliver Far Reaching Reform. Presentation in the congress Adaptation Canada, April 14th 2016.

33. County of Haliburton (2016) Available from: https://haliburtoncounty.ca

34. Plan PLUIES (2011) Le Plan Pluies (Prévention etLutte contre lesInondationset leursEffets sur lesSinistrés). Available from:
http://environnement.wallonie.be/de/dcenn/plan_pluies/index.htm.

35. Bousbaine AD,Bryant CR (2015) Les défis des communautés côtières pour rehausser la résilience et leur capacité à faire face aux intempéries climatiques.VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement[Online], Hors-série 23|November 2015, Posted online 25 November 2015. Available from: http://vertigo.revues.org/16608

36. Government of South Australia (2012) Prospering in a Changing Climate: A Climate Change Framework for South Australia, August 2012. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources, South Australia.

37. Bryant CR (1999) Community-based strategic planning, mobilisation and action at the edge of the urban field: the case of Haliburton County, in Bowler, I., Bryant, C.R., Firmino, A. (eds.), Progress in Research on Sustainable Rural Systems. Lisbonne, Portugal: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Centro de Estudos de Geografia e Planeamento Regional, Série Estudos, No. 2, 1999, 211-222.

38. Saporta I (2012) Le livre noir de l’agriculture: Comment on assassine nos paysans, notre santé et l’environnement. Paris: Collection Pluriel, 250.

39. Bryant CR, Singh B, Thomassin P, et al. (2007) Farm-level Vulnerabilities and Adaptations to Climate Change in Quebec: Lessons from Farmer Risk Management and Adaptations to Climatic Variability. Research Report submitted to CCIAP, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, 44 pp., plus appendices.

40. Bryant CR, Singh B, Thomassin P (2008) Evaluation of Agricultural Adaptation Processes and Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change and Variability: The Co-construction of New Adaptation Planning Tools with Stakeholders and Farming Communities in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean and Montérégie Regions of Québec. Ottawa: Research Report for project A1332, submitted to Natural Resources Canada, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Program, 50 pp plus appendices (350 p).

41. Épule TE, Bryant CR, Akkari C, et al. (2015) Can organic fertilizers set the pace for a greener arable agricultural revolution in Africa? Analysis, synthesis and way forward. Land Use Policy 47: 179-187.

42. Malassis L (1958) Économie des exploitations agricoles : essai sur les structures et les résultats des exploitations agricoles de grande et de petite superficie. Partis: A. Colin.

43. Épule TÉ, Bryant CR (2015) Maize production responsiveness to land use change and climate trends in Cameroon. Sustainability 7: 384-397.

44. Daouda O, Bryant CR, Akkari C (2015) Social networks and the diffusion of innovations, towards a critical partnership for a successful adaptation strategy: A case study of agriculture in southwestern Quebec. Int J Climate Change: Impacts and Responses 6: 37-58.

45. MAPAQ (Ministere de l'Agriculture, des Pecheries et de l'Alimentation du Québec), 2015. Available from:
http://www.mapaq.gouv.qc.ca/fr/Productions/developpementregional/Pages/PDZA.aspx

46. Bijlsma L, Ehler CN, Klein RJT, et al. (1996) Coastal zones and small islands’, in R.T. Watson, M.C. Zinyowera, R.H. Moss (eds), Climate Change 1995-Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses, Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 289-324.

47. ARUC (Alliance Recherche Université-Communautés) (2014) Défis des communautés côtières. Rimouski, Québec: UQAR (Université du Québec à Rimouski). Available from: http://www.defisdescommunautescotieres.org/.

48. Aerts JCJH, Botzen W, van der Veen A, et al. (2008) Dealing with uncertainty in flood management through diversification. Ecol Soc 13: 41.

49. Schmidt-Thome P, Klein J (2013) Climate Change Adaptation in Practice: From Strategy Development to Implementation. Wiley-Blackwell.

50. Kabat P, Fresco LO, Stive C MJ, et al. (2009) Dutch coasts in transition. Nat Geosci 2: 450-452.

51. Nicholls RJ (2011) Planning for the impacts of sea level rise. Oceanography 24: 144-157.

52. IPCC (2014b) Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ,et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

53. The Nature Conservancy (2013) Integrating natural infrastructure into urban coastal resilience, Howard Beach, Queens. New York: The Nature Conservancy. Available from:
http://resilient-cities.iclei.org/fileadmin/sites/resilient-cities/files/docs/TNC_Howard_Beach_Report.pdf

54. UN Report (2004) Guidelines for reducing flood losses. Available from: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/flood_guidelines.pdf

55. Harman BP, Heyenga S, Taylor BM, et al. (2015) Global Lessons for Adapting Coastal Communities to Protect against Storm Surge Inundation. J Coastal Res 31: 790-801.

56. Zevenbergen C, Veerbeek W, Gersonius B, et al. (2008) Challenges in urban flood management: travelling across spatial and temporal scales. J Flood Risk Manage 1: 81-88.

57. Van Koningsveld M, Mulder JPM, Stive MJF, et al. (2008) Living with sea-level rise and climate change: A case study of the Netherlands. J Coast Res 24: 367-379.

58. Bruin de K, Dellink R., Ruijs A, et al. (2009) Adaptation to climate change in The Netherlands:an inventory of climate adaptation options and ranking of alternatives.Climatic Change95: 23-45.

59. Sussman F, Krishnan N, Maher K, et al. (2014) Climate change adaptation cost in the US: What do we know? Climate Policy 14: 242-282.

60. Klein RJT (2009) Identifying countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change: an academic or a political challenge? Carbon Climate Law Rev 3: 284-291.

61. Bryant CR, Chahine G (2016) Action research and reducing the vulnerability of peri-urban agriculture: A case study from the Montreal Region. Geographical Research 2: 1-11.

62. Bousbaine AD, Bryant CR (2016) The integration of action research and traditional field research to provide sustainable solutions to maintaining peri-urban agriculture. Geographical Research 2: 1-11.

63. Akkari C (2015) Adaptation of Agriculture to Climate Change in Québec: The Co-construction of Agricultural Policies in the RCM of Haut-Richelieu. Montreal: University of Montreal, Masters thesis in Geography.

64. Akkari C, Bryant CR (2016) The co-construction approach as approach to developing adaptation strategies in the face of climate change and variability. Agr Res 2016: 1-12.

Copyright Info: © 2016, Christopher R. Bryant, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved