Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Environmentally friendly technologies for obtaining high sugars concentrations from invasive woody species

1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense, Spain
3 CITI-Tecnopole, San Ciprian de Viñas, 32901 Ourense, Spain

Special Issues: Integrated biochemical conversion of biomass into chemicals and fuels

The efficient utilization and conversion of inexpensive invasive raw materials into bioethanol following a biorefinery approach is a priority in the research field of renewable fuel. With this purpose, Acacia dealbata wood samples were pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate under optimized conditions, and the resulting solids were employed as a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Enzymatic assays were performed according to a complete factorial experimental design, in which the effects of two independent variables (liquor to solid ratio and enzyme to substrate ratio) on the kinetics and yields of the xylan and cellulose saccharification were assessed. The Response Surface Methodology was employed for optimizing the experimental conditions. High sugar concentrations (around 80 g/L), and favorable polysaccharide conversions (CCG = 79.4% and XnCX = 77.9%). were predicted by the model under the selected operational conditions (6 g liquor/g substrate, 22 FPU/g). The results reported in this work compare well with other studies dealing with either other ionic liquids or classical pretreatments, using the same raw material or other woody substrates.
  Article Metrics

Keywords Acacia dealbata wood; ionic liquid; pretreatment; enzymatic hydrolysis; biomass biorefinery

Citation: Beatriz Gullón, Belén Gómez, José Luis Alonso, Remedios Yáñez. Environmentally friendly technologies for obtaining high sugars concentrations from invasive woody species. AIMS Environmental Science, 2015, 2(4): 884-898. doi: 10.3934/environsci.2015.4.884


  • 1. Koutinas AA, Wang RH, Webb C (2007) The biochemurgist-bioconversion of agricultural raw materials for chemical production. Biofuel Bioprod Bior 1: 24–38.
  • 2. Yang H, Wang K, Song X, et al. (2011) Production of xylooligosaccharides by xylanase from Pichia stipitis based on xylan preparation from triploid Populastomentosa. Bioresour Technol 102: 7171–7176.
  • 3. Kamm B, Gruber PR, Kamm M (2008) Biorefineries-Industrial Processes and Products: Status Quo and Future Directions. In: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KGaA, Weinheim.
  • 4. Gullón P, Romaní A, Vila C, et al. (2012) Potential of hydrothermal treatments in lignocellulose biorefineries. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 6: 219–232.
  • 5. Lorenzo P, Rodríguez-Echeverría S, González L, et al. (2010) Effect of invasive Acacia dealbata link on soil microorganisms as determined by PCR-DGGE. Appl Soil Ecol 44: 245–251.
  • 6. Yáñez R, Gómez B, Martínez M, et al. (2014) Valorization of an invasive woody species, Acacia dealbata by means of Ionic liquid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 89: 1337–1343.
  • 7. Qiu Z, Aita GM, Walker MS (2012) Effect of ionic liquid pretreatment on the chemical composition, structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of energy cane bagasse. Bioresour Technol 117: 251–256.
  • 8. Fu D, Mazza G (2011) Optimization of processing conditions for the pretreatment of wheat straw using aqueous ionic liquid. Bioresour Technol 102: 8003–8010.
  • 9. Sun Y, Cheng J (2002) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresour Technol 83: 1–11.
  • 10. Galbe M, Zacchi G (2007) Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for efficient bioethanol production. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 108: 41–65.
  • 11. Kumar P, Barrett DM, Delwiche MJ, et al. (2009) Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production. Ind Eng Chem Res 48: 3713–3729.
  • 12. Buruiana CT, Vizireanu C, Garrote G, et al. (2014) Optimization of corn stover biorefinery for coproduction of oligomers and second generation bioethanol using non-isothermal autohydrolysis. Ind Crop Prod 54: 32–39.    
  • 13. Mora-Pale M, Meli L, Doherty TV, et al. (2011) Room temperature ionic liquids as emerging solvents for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Biotechnol Bioeng 108: 1229–1245.
  • 14. Sousa LD, Chundawat SPS, Balan V, et al. (2009) ‘Cradle-to-grave’ assessment of existing lignocellulose pretreatment technologies. Curr Opin Biotechnol 20: 339–347.
  • 15. Earle MJ, Seddon KR (2000) Ionic liquids. Green solvents for the future. Pure Appl Chem 72: 1391–1398.
  • 16. Arora R, Manisseri C, Li C, et al. (2010) Monitoring and analyzing process streams towards understanding ionic liquid pretreatment of switchgrass (Panicumvirgatum L). Bioenerg Res 3: 134–145.
  • 17. Zavrel M, Bross D, Funke M, et al. (2009) High-throughput screening for ionic liquids dissolving (ligno-) cellulose. Bioresour Technol 100: 2580–2587.    
  • 18. Sant’Ana da Silva A, Lee SH, Endo T, et al. (2011) Major improvement in the rate and yield of enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse via pretreatment with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim] [Ac]). Bioresour Technol 102: 10505–10509.
  • 19. Fukaya Y, Sugimoto A, Ohno H (2006) Superior solubility of polysaccharides in low viscosity, polar, and halogen-free 1,3-dialkylimidazolium formats. Biomacromolecules 7: 3295–3297.
  • 20. Sun N, Rahman M, Qin Y, et al. (2009) Complete dissolution and partial delignification of wood in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Green Chem 11: 646–655.
  • 21. Samayam IP, Schall CA (2010) Saccharification of ionic liquid pretreated biomass with commercial enzyme mixtures. Bioresour Technol 101: 3561–3566.
  • 22. Zhao H, Jones CL, Baker GA, et al. (2009) Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis. J Biotechnol 139: 47–54.
  • 23. Dagnino EO, Roggero Luque FS, Morales WG, et al. (2009) Hidrólisis enzimática de cascarilla de arroz pretratada con ácido diluido para evaluar la eficacia de la etapa de pretratamiento. II Jornadas de Investigación en Ingeniería del NEA y países limítrofes.
  • 24. Dadi AP, Varanasi S, Schall CA (2006) Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotech Bioeng 95: 904–910.
  • 25. Zhu L (2005) Fundamentals study of structural features affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Thesis.
  • 26. Mandels M, Andreotti R, Roche C (1976) Measurement of saccharifying cellulose. Biotechnol Bioeng Symp 6: 21–23.
  • 27. Paquot M, Thonart P (1982) Hydrolyse enzymatique de la cellulose régénérée. Holzforschung 36: 177–181.
  • 28. Yáñez R, Romaní A, Garrote G, et al. (2009) Processing of Acacia dealbata in aqueous media: first step of a wood biorefinery. Ind Eng Chem Res 48: 6618–6626.    
  • 29. Yáñez R, Romaní A, Garrote G, et al. (2009). Experimental evaluation of alkaline treatment as a method for enhancing the enzymatic digestibility of autohydrolysed Acacia dealbata. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84: 1070–1077.    
  • 30. Ferreira S, Gil N, Queiroz JA, et al. (2011) An evaluation of the potential of Acacia dealbata as raw material for bioethanol production. Bioresour Technol 102: 4766–4773.
  • 31. Gullón B, Garrote G, Alonso JL, et al. (2007) Production of L-lactic acid and oligomeric compounds from apple pomace by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: a response surface methodology assessment. J Agric Food Chem 55: 5580–5587.
  • 32. Gullón B, Yáñez R, Alonso JL, et al. (2008) L-Lactic acid production from apple pomace by sequential hydrolysis and fermentation. Bioresour Technol 99: 308–319.
  • 33. Romaní A, Yáñez R, Garrote G, et al. (2007) Sugar production from cellulosic biosludges generated in a water treatment plant of a Kraft pulp mill. Biochem Eng J 37: 319–327.
  • 34. Holtzapple MT, Caram HS, Humphrey AE (1984) A comparison of two empirical models for the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated poplar wood. Biotechnol Bioeng 26: 936–941.
  • 35. Romaní R, Garrote G, Alonso JL, et al. (2010) Bioethanol production from hydrothermally pretreated Eucalyptus globulus wood. Bioresour Technol 101: 8706–8712.    
  • 36. Steele B, Raj S, Nghiem J, et al. (2005) Enzyme recovery and recycling following hydrolysis of ammonia fiber explosion–treated corn stover. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 121/124: 901–910.


Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2015, Remedios Yáñez, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved