Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Diesel exhaust pollution: chemical monitoring and cytotoxicity assessment

1 School of Risk and Safety Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia;
2 School of Chemistry, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia;
3 School of Health & Society, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia

Special Issues: Pollution and Chemicals in the Environment

Diesel engines are a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) which may cause adverse health effects on the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. There is little consistency between many studies to establish which engine parameter is a key factor to determine the toxicity of diesel exhaust. The aim of this study was to correlate engine operating systems with cytotoxicity using human cells. A dynamic direct exposure system containing human cells grown at the air liquid interface (ALI) was employed to expose human derived cells to diesel exhaust emitted under a range of engine loads. To determine correlation between engine load and cytotoxicity, concentrations of NOx and carbon (organic and elemental) were measured. Comparison between filtered and unfiltered exhaust was also made. To assess cytotoxicity and determine mechanisms responsible for toxic effects, various bioassays measuring a range of endpoints were used including: cell metabolism (MTS), cell energy production (ATP) and cell lysosome integrity (NRU). The human cells selected in this study were lung (A549) and liver (HepG2) derived cells to detect if observed cytotoxicity was basal (i.e. affect all cell types) or organ-specific. Results showed that NOx gas concentrations increased as engine load increased which resulted in significant cytotoxicity to both A549 and HepG2 cells. In contrast carbon measurements remained relatively constant across loads with no observable significant difference in cytotoxicity by filtering diesel exhaust. This result suggests that the gaseous component of diesel exhaust may contribute higher cytotoxicity than the particulate component. Post exposure incubation was an important factor to consider as only gaseous components of diesel exhaust exhibited observable immediate effects. Our findings suggest engine torque as a reliable indicator of cytotoxicity on human cells. The advantages of the dynamic direct exposure method include a more realistic representation of human respiratory toxicity and modularity which would allow for the analyses of pollution other than diesel exhaust.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Bauer M, Moebus S, Möhlenkamp S, et al. (2010) Urban Particulate Matter Air Pollution Is Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis: Results From the HNR (Heinz Nixdorf Recall) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 56: 1803-1808.    

2. Glantz SA (2002) Air pollution as a cause of heart diseaseTime for action*. J Am Coll Cardiol 39: 943-945.    

3. Krishnan RM, Adar SD, Szpiro AA, et al. Vascular Responses to Long- and Short-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: MESA Air (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution). J Am Coll Cardiol 60: 2158-2166.

4. Peters A (2005) Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 207: 477-482.    

5. Pope CA, 3rd, Renlund DG, Kfoury AG, et al. (2008) Relation of heart failure hospitalization to exposure to fine particulate air pollution. Am J Cardiol 102: 1230-1234.    

6. Shrey K, Suchit A, Deepika D, et al. (2011) Air pollutants: the key stages in the pathway towards the development of cardiovascular disorders. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 31: 1-9.    

7. Bernstein JA, Alexis N, Barnes C, et al. (2004) Health effects of air pollution. J Allergy Clin Immun 114: 1116-1123.    

8. Ghio AJ, Smith CB, Madden MC (2012) Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation. Curr Opin Pulm Med 18: 144-150.    

9. Kunzli N, Kaiser R, Medina S, et al. (2000) Public-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: a European assessment. Lancet 356: 795-801.    

10. McEntee JC, Ogneva-Himmelberger Y (2008) Diesel particulate matter, lung cancer, and asthma incidences along major traffic corridors in MA, USA: A GIS analysis. Health Place 14: 817-828.    

11. Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Goldbohm S, et al. (2002) Association between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: a cohort study. Lancet 360: 1203-1209.    

12. Beelen R, Hoek G, van den Brandt PA, et al. (2008) Long-Term Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Mortality in a Dutch Cohort (NLCS-AIR Study). Environ Health Persp 116: 196-202.    

13. Kampa M, Castanas E (2008) Human health effects of air pollution. Environ Pollut 151: 362-367.    

14. Autrup H (2010) Ambient Air Pollution and Adverse Health Effects. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2: 7333-7338.    

15. Englert N (2004) Fine particles and human health--a review of epidemiological studies. Toxicol Lett 149: 235-242.    

16. Simkhovich BZ, Kleinman MT, Kloner RA (2008) Air Pollution and Cardiovascular InjuryEpidemiology, Toxicology, and Mechanisms. J Am Coll Cardiol 52: 719-726.    

17. Yokota S, Moriya N, Iwata M, et al. (2013) Exposure to diesel exhaust during fetal period affects behavior and neurotransmitters in male offspring mice. J Toxicol Sci 38: 13-23.    

18. Ema M, Naya M, Horimoto M, et al. (2013) Developmental toxicity of diesel exhaust: A review of studies in experimental animals. Reprod Toxicol 42: 1-17.    

19. Folkmann JK, Risom L, Hansen CS, et al. (2007) Oxidatively damaged DNA and inflammation in the liver of dyslipidemic ApoE-/- mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles. Toxicology 237: 134-144.    

20. Danielsen PH, Risom L, Wallin H, et al. (2008) DNA damage in rats after a single oral exposure to diesel exhaust particles. Mut Res 637: 49-55.    

21. Nemmar A, Al-Salam S, Zia S, et al. (2010) Time-course effects of systemically administered diesel exhaust particles in rats. Toxicol Lett 194: 58-65.    

22. Nicoll CS, Russell SM (1992) Animal rights, animal research, and human obligations. Mol Cell Neurosci 3: 271-277.    

23. Tee LBG, Davies DS, Seddon CE, et al. (1987) Species differences in the hepatotoxicity of paracetamol are due to differences in the rate of conversion to its cytotoxic metabolite. Biochem Pharmacol 36: 1041-1052.    

24. Valerio Jr LG, Arvidson KB, Chanderbhan RF, et al. (2007) Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 222: 1-16.    

25. Roggen EL, Soni NK, Verheyen GR (2006) Respiratory immunotoxicity: An in vitro assessment. Toxicol In Vitro 20: 1249-1264.    

26. Fröhlich E, Salar-Behzadi S (2014) Toxicological Assessment of Inhaled Nanoparticles: Role of in Vivo, ex Vivo, in Vitro, and in Silico Studies. Int J Mol Sci 15: 4795-4822.    

27. Steinritz D, Möhle N, Pohl C, et al. (2013) Use of the Cultex® Radial Flow System as an in vitro exposure method to assess acute pulmonary toxicity of fine dusts and nanoparticles with special focus on the intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility. Chem Biol Interact 206: 479-490.    

28. Thorne D, Adamson J (2013) A review of in vitro cigarette smoke exposure systems. Exp Toxicol Pathol 65: 1183-1193.    

29. Kawanishi M, Kanno T, Nishida H, et al. (2013) Translesion DNA synthesis across various DNA adducts produced by 3-nitrobenzanthrone in Escherichia coli. Mut Res 754: 32-38.    

30. Bömmel H, Haake M, Luft P, et al. (2003) The diesel exhaust component pyrene induces expression of IL-8 but not of eotaxin. Int Immunopharmacol 3: 1371-1379.    

31. Shima H, Koike E, Shinohara R, et al. (2006) Oxidative Ability and Toxicity of n-Hexane Insoluble Fraction of Diesel Exhaust Particles. Toxicol Sci 91: 218-226.    

32. Courter LA, Luch A, Musafia-Jeknic T, et al. (2008) The influence of diesel exhaust on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced DNA damage, gene expression, and tumor initiation in Sencar mice in vivo. Cancer Lett 265: 135-147.    

33. Koike E, Kobayashi T (2005) Organic extract of diesel exhaust particles stimulates expression of Ia and costimulatory molecules associated with antigen presentation in rat peripheral blood monocytes but not in alveolar macrophages. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 209: 277-285.    

34. Saei Moghaddam M, Zarringhalam Moghaddam A (2014) Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with diesel-nitrogenated additives. Chem Eng Res Des 92: 720-726.    

35. Young LH, Liou YJ, Cheng MT, et al. (2012) Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust. J Hazard Mater 199-200: 282-289.    

36. Zhang Z-H, Balasubramanian R (2014) Influence of butanol–diesel blends on particulate emissions of a non-road diesel engine. Fuel 118: 130-136.    

37. Koc AB, Abdullah M (2013) Performance and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel-diesel-water nanoemulsions. Fuel Process Technol 109: 70-77.    

38. Ong HC, Masjuki HH, Mahlia TMI, et al. (2014) Engine performance and emissions using Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in a CI diesel engine. Energy 69: 427-445.    

39. Labeckas G, Slavinskas S (2009) Study of exhaust emissions of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends. Energ Convers Manage 50: 802-812.    

40. Boubel RW, Fox DL, Turner DB, et al. (1994) Fundamentals of Air Pollution. San Diego: Academic Press

41. Challen B, Baranescu R (1999) Diesel engine reference book. Oxford, England; Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann

42. Shi JP, Harrison RM, Brear F (1999) Particle size distribution from a modern heavy duty diesel engine. Sci Total Environ 235: 305-317.    

43. Stevenson R (1982) The morphology and crystallography of diesel particulate emissions. Carbon 20: 359-365.    

44. Hayes AJ, Bakand S (2014) Toxicological perspectives of inhaled therapeutics and nanoparticles. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 10: 933-947.    

45. Joeng L, Hayes A, Bakand S (2013) Validation of the Dynamic Direct Exposure Method for Toxicity Testing of Diesel Exhaust In Vitro. ISRN Toxicol 2013: 11.

46. Standards Australia (1998) AS 3570 - 1998: Automotive diesel fuel. In: Australia S, editor.

47. Promega (2007) CellTiter-Glo(R) Luminescent Cell Viability Assay Technical Bulletin, TB288 Promega Corporation. Madison, USA.

48. Goodwin CJ, Holt SJ, Downes S, et al. (1995) Microculture tetrazolium assays: a comparison between two new tetrazolium salts, XTT and MTS. J Immunol Methods 179: 95-103.    

49. Borenfreund E, Puerner JA (1985) Toxicity determined in vitro by morphological alterations and neutral red absorption. Toxicol Lett 24: 119-124.    

50. Kagawa J (2002) Health effects of diesel exhaust emissions--a mixture of air pollutants of worldwide concern. Toxicology 181-182: 349-353.    

51. Knebel JW, Ritter D, Aufderheide M (2002) Exposure of human lung cells to native diesel motor exhaust-- development of an optimized in vitro test strategy. Toxicol In Vitro 16: 185-192.    

52. Betha R, Pavagadhi S, Sethu S, et al. (2012) Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of airborne particulate matter emitted from stationary engine fuelled with diesel and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Atmos Environ 61: 23-29.    

53. Sharma M, Agarwal AK, Bharathi KVL (2005) Characterization of exhaust particulates from diesel engine. Atmos Environ 39: 3023-3028.    

54. El_Kassaby M, Nemit_allah MA (2013) Studying the effect of compression ratio on an engine fueled with waste oil produced biodiesel/diesel fuel. Alex Eng J 52: 1-11.    

55. Szybist JP, Boehman AL, Taylor JD, et al. (2005) Evaluation of formulation strategies to eliminate the biodiesel NOx effect. Fuel Process Technol 86: 1109-1126.    

56. Hellier P, Ladommatos N, Yusaf T (2015) The influence of straight vegetable oil fatty acid composition on compression ignition combustion and emissions. Fuel 143: 131-143.    

57. Ponsoda X, Jover R, Núñez C, et al. (1995) Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of 10 chemicals in human and rat hepatocytes and in cell lines: Correlation between in vitro data and human lethal concentration. Toxicol In Vitro 9: 959-966.    

58. Zhang X, Yang F, Xu C, et al. (2008) Cytotoxicity evaluation of three pairs of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) enantiomers on Hep G2 cell. Toxicol In Vitro 22: 1520-1527.    

59. Herzog F, Clift MJD, Piccapietra F, et al. (2013) Exposure of silver-nanoparticles and silver-ions to lung cells in vitro at the air-liquid interface. Part Fibre Toxicol 10: 11.    

60. Barkhordari A, Barzegar S, Hekmatimoghaddam H, et al. (2014) The Toxic Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Blood Mononuclear Cells. Int J Occup Environ Med 5: 164-168.

61. Chen R-M, Chou MW, Ueng T-H (2000) Induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 in human hepatoma HepG2 cells by 6-nitrochrysene. Toxicol Lett 117: 69-77.    

62. Durga M, Nathiya S, Rajasekar A, et al. (2014) Effects of ultrafine petrol exhaust particles on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress generation, DNA damage and inflammation in human A549 lung cells and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 38: 518-530.    

63. Tang M, Li Q, Xiao L, et al. (2012) Toxicity effects of short term diesel exhaust particles exposure to human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) and human lung carcinoma epithelial cells (A549). Toxicol Lett 215: 181-192.    

64. Xiao M, Helsing AV, Lynch PM, et al. (2014) DNA damage caused by inorganic particulate matter on Raji and HepG2 cell lines exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Mut Res 771: 6-14.    

65. Lamy E, Kassie F, Gminski R, et al. (2004) 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) induced micronucleus formation and DNA damage in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Toxicol Lett 146: 103-109.    

Copyright Info: © 2015, Amanda Hayes, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved