Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA

1 Independent Consultant, Berthoud, CO, USA
2 University of Trento, Italy
3 University of Colorado-Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA

Topical Section: Wind Energy

Energy storage is becoming increasingly important as renewable generation sources such as Wind Turbine and Photo Voltaic Solar are added to the mix in electrical power generation and distribution systems. The paper discusses the basic drivers for energy storage and provides brief descriptions of the various energy storage technologies available. The information summarizes current technical tradeoffs with different storage approaches and identifies issues surrounding deployment of large scale energy storage systems.
  Article Metrics

Keywords electrical grid; energy storage; renewable energy; batteries; pumped hydro-electric energy storage; compressed air energy storage

Citation: Eugene Freeman, Davide Occello, Frank Barnes. Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA. AIMS Energy, 2016, 4(6): 856-875. doi: 10.3934/energy.2016.6.856


  • 1. Masters G (2004) Renewable and efficient electric power systems. Chapter 3.9.2. Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New Jersey, 75, 76.
  • 2. Barnes F, Levine J (2011) Large Energy Storage Systems, Handbook CRC Press.
  • 3. Yan J (2015) Handbook of Clean Energy Systems Vol 5, Wiley.
  • 4. Kyriakopoulos G, Arabatzis G (2016) Electrical energy storage systems in electricity generation: energy policies, innovative technologies, and regulatory regimes. Renew Sust Energ Rev 56: 1044-1067.    
  • 5. Akhil A, Huff G, Currier A, et al. (2013) Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA Sandia Report Sand 2013-5131.
  • 6. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2014) Derived from International Energy Report 2014.
  • 7. Succar S, Williams R (2008) Compressed air energy storage: theory, resources, and applications for wind power. Princeton Environmental Institute, Princeton, NJ.
  • 8. Denholm P, Hand M (2011) Grid flexibility and storage required to achieve very high penetration of variable renewable electricity. Energ Policy 39: 1817–1830.    
  • 9. ENERGINET.DK (2014) 2013 was a record-setting year for Danish wind power. Available from: http://energinet.dk/EN/El/Nyheder/Sider/2013-var-et-rekordaar-for-dansk-vindkraft.aspx. (Access Date: 03/08/2016)
  • 10. Sharman H (2009) Wind Energy the Case of Denmark, Center for Poitiske Studier, CEPOS. Available from: http://www.templar.co.uk/downloads/Wind_energy_-_the_case_of_ Denmark.pdf. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 11. Reference case U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (April 2015) Annual Energy Outlook 2015.
  • 12. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Table 6.7.B. Capacity Factors for Utility Scale Generators Not Primarily Using Fossil Fuels, January 2013-May 2016 Available from: https://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher.cfm?t=epmt_6_07_b. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 13. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Table 1.2 Primary Energy Production by Source. Available from: http://www.eia.gov/beta/MER/index.cfm?tbl=T01.02#/?f=A&start=200001. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 14. Andreas A, Stoffel T (2010) Sun Spot One, San Luis Valley, Colorado, Governor's Energy Office (Data) Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5439/1052221.
  • 15. Bonneville Power Administration (2009) WIND GENERATION & Total Load in The BPA Balancing Authority Data at 5-minute increments for year 2009. Available from: https://transmission.bpa.gov/business/operations/wind/.
  • 16. U.S. Energy Information Administration (Dec. 2014) Increased solar and wind electricity generation in California are changing net load shapes. Available from: http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=19111. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 17. California ISO (CAISO) Renewables Watch Available from: http://www.caiso.com/green/renewableswatch.html. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 18. Sundararagavan S, Baker E (2012) Evaluating energy storage technologies for wind power integration. Solar Energy 86: 2707-2717.    
  • 19. Manuel W (2014) Energy Storage Study 2014, Available from: http://www.energy.ca.gov/assessments/ab2514_reports/Turlock_Irrigation_District/2014-10-28_ Turlock_Irrigation_District_Energy_Storage_Study.pdf. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 20. Carnegie R, Gotham D, Nderitu D, et al. (2013) Utility Scale Energy Storage Systems, Benefits, Applications, and Technologies. Available from: https://www.purdue.edu/discoverypark/energy/ assets/pdfs/SUFG/publications/SUFG Energy Storage Report.pdf. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 21. Energy Storage Association (ESA) Benefit Categories, Executive Summary. Available from: http://energystorage.org/energy-storage/energy-storage-benefits/benefit-categories. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 22. Rastler D (2010) Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options: A White Paper Primer on Applications, Costs and Benefits: Electric Power Research Institute.
  • 23. Luo X, Wang J, Dooner M, et al. (2015) Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation. Appl Energ V137: 511-53
  • 24. Zaker B, Syri S (2015) Electrical energy storage systems: A comparative life cycle cost analysis. Renew Sust Energ Rev 42: 569-596.    
  • 25. Polo M (2006) Secondary Cell Diagram of energy density Creative Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Secondary_cell_energy_density.svg. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 26. Environmental Health Perspectives (2007) VOLUME 115, NUMBER 7.
  • 27. Lucas A, Chondrogiannis S (2016) Smart grid energy storage controller for frequency regulation and peakshaving, using a vanadium redox flow battery. Int J Electr Power Energ Syst 80: 26-36.
  • 28. Tosaka (2008) Electric_double-layer_capacitor_(2_models)_-1_NT Creative Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Electric_double-layer_capacitor_ (2_models)_-1_NT.PNG. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 29. Nielsen K, Molinas M (2010) Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Sources Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on, 2487, 2492, 4-7.
  • 30. Marouchkine A (2004) Room-Temperature Superconductivity, CISP Cambridge International Science Publishing.
  • 31. Stevens K, Thornton R, Clark T, et al. (2002) A Shaftless Magnetically Levitated Multifunctional Spacecraft Flywheel Storage System, Unclassified NASA final report. Available from: http://www.archive.org/details/nasa_techdoc_20020034156. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 32. Bitterly J (1998) Flywheel technology: past, present and 21st century projections, IEEE AES Systems Magazine, 13-16.
  • 33. Crotogino F (2001) Huntorf CAES: More than 20 years of successful operation. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116300363.
  • 34. Barbour E, Wilson I, Radcliffe J, et al. (2016), A review of pumped hydro energy storage development in significant international electricity markets. Renew Sust Energ Rev 61. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.04.019.
  • 35. Tennessee Valley Authority (2004) Raccon Mountain Pumped Storage Power Plant (TVA). Available from: http://www.tva.gov/power/pumpstorart.htm. (Access Date 07/2004)
  • 36. Pickard W (2012) The History, Present State, and Future Prospects of Underground Pumped Hydro for Massive Energy Storage. Proceedings of the IEEE 100: 473-483.    
  • 37. R. EPRI – Pollak (1994) History of First US Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Plant (110MW 26h) Volume 2.
  • 38. DOE/EPRI (2013) DOE/EPRI 2013 Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA, SANDIA Report 2013-5131. Available from: http://www.sandia.gov/ess/publications/ SAND2013-5131.pdf. (Access Date: 08/21/2016)
  • 39. Budt M, Wolf D, Span R, et al. (2016) A review on compressed air energy storage: Basic principles, past milestones and recent developments. Appl Energ 170: 250-268. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.02.108.    
  • 40. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261916302641.


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Sintayehu Nibret Tiruneh, Bong Kyun Kang, Sung Hoon Kwag, Usama Bin Humayoun, Dae Ho Yoon, Nickel cobalt sulfide anchored in crumpled and porous graphene framework for electrochemical energy storage, Current Applied Physics, 2017, 10.1016/j.cap.2017.11.018
  • 2. Matthew D. Leonard, Efstathios E. Michaelides, Grid-Independent Residential Buildings with Renewable Energy Sources, Energy, 2018, 10.1016/j.energy.2018.01.168
  • 3. Matthew D. Leonard, Efstathios E. Michaelides, Dimitrios N. Michaelides, Substitution of coal power plants with renewable energy sources – Shift of the power demand and energy storage, Energy Conversion and Management, 2018, 164, 27, 10.1016/j.enconman.2018.02.083
  • 4. Sammy Houssainy, Mohammad Janbozorgi, Pirouz Kavehpour, Thermodynamic performance and cost optimization of a novel hybrid thermal-compressed air energy storage system design, Journal of Energy Storage, 2018, 18, 206, 10.1016/j.est.2018.05.004
  • 5. Sammy Houssainy, Mohammad Janbozorgi, Pirouz Kavehpour, Theoretical Performance Limits of an Isobaric Hybrid Compressed Air Energy Storage System, Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 2018, 140, 10, 101201, 10.1115/1.4040060
  • 6. Shania Sharif, Khuram Shahzad Ahmad, Synthesis and physiognomic study of copper sulfide doped cobalt sulfide, Materials Research Express, 2019, 6, 4, 046408, 10.1088/2053-1591/aafb9e
  • 7. Matthew D. Leonard, Efstathios E. Michaelides, Dimitrios N. Michaelides, Energy storage needs for the substitution of fossil fuel power plants with renewables, Renewable Energy, 2019, 10.1016/j.renene.2019.06.066
  • 8. Michelle K. DeValeria, Efstathios E. Michaelides, Dimitrios N. Michaelides, Energy and thermal storage in clusters of grid-independent buildings, Energy, 2019, 116440, 10.1016/j.energy.2019.116440
  • 9. Efstathios E. Michaelides, Thermodynamics and energy usage of electric vehicles, Energy Conversion and Management, 2020, 203, 112246, 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.112246
  • 10. Brady Bokelman, Efstathios E. Michaelides, Dimitrios N. Michaelides, A Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant with Thermal Energy Storage, Energies, 2020, 13, 5, 1018, 10.3390/en13051018
  • 11. Sammy Houssainy, Mohammad Janbozorgi, Pirouz Kavehpour, Performance of an Isobaric Hybrid Compressed Air Energy Storage System at Minimum Entropy Generation, Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 2020, 142, 5, 10.1115/1.4045931
  • 12. Efstathios E. Michaelides, Dimitrios N. Michaelides, Impact of nuclear energy on fossil fuel substitution, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 2020, 366, 110742, 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2020.110742

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2016, Frank Barnes, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved