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Intelligent control schemes applied to Automatic Generation Control

1 R&D Department, Siemens Smart Grid Division, 10090 Wayzata Blvd, Suite 400, Minnetonka, MN 55305 USA
2 Accenture, 1301 Fannin St. 1900, Houston, TX77002 USA

Topical Section: Smart Grids and Networks

Integrating ever increasing amount of renewable generating resources to interconnected power systems has created new challenges to the safety and reliability of today‟s power grids and posed new questions to be answered in the power system modeling, analysis and control. Automatic Generation Control (AGC) must be extended to be able to accommodate the control of renewable generating assets. In addition, AGC is mandated to operate in accordance with the NERC‟s Control Performance Standard (CPS) criteria, which represent a greater flexibility in relaxing the control of generating resources and yet assuring the stability and reliability of interconnected power systems when each balancing authority operates in full compliance. Enhancements in several aspects to the traditional AGC must be made in order to meet the aforementioned challenges. It is the intention of this paper to provide a systematic, mathematical formulation for AGC as a first attempt in the context of meeting the NERC CPS requirements and integrating renewable generating assets, which has not been seen reported in the literature to the best knowledge of the authors. Furthermore, this paper proposes neural network based predictive control schemes for AGC. The proposed controller is capable of handling complicated nonlinear dynamics in comparison with the conventional Proportional Integral (PI) controller which is typically most effective to handle linear dynamics. The neural controller is designed in such a way that it has the capability of controlling the system generation in the relaxed manner so the ACE is controlled to a desired range instead of driving it to zero which would otherwise increase the control effort and cost; and most importantly the resulting system control performance meets the NERC CPS requirements and/or the NERC Balancing Authority’s ACE Limit (BAAL) compliance requirements whichever are applicable.
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Keywords Smart Grid; Automatic Generation Control (AGC); Control Performance Standard (CPS); Predictive Control; Renewable Energy Resources; Neural Networks; Neural Controller

Citation: Dingguo Chen, Lu Wang. Intelligent control schemes applied to Automatic Generation Control. AIMS Energy, 2016, 4(3): 517-535. doi: 10.3934/energy.2016.3.517


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Copyright Info: 2016, Dingguo Chen, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

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