Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Harvest strategy and N fertilizer effects on bioenergy sorghum production

1 Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas;
2 Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland;
3 Environmental Studies Department, College of St. Benedict & St. John's University, Collegeville, MN

Special Issues: Renewable energy systems and agro-residue management

Bioenergy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has the potential to be a very important cellulosic feedstock if it can be produced without degrading soil quality. Two important factors for achieving that goal are N management and the amount of residue (i.e. carbon) returned to the soil. This study evaluated two N rates (0 or 280 kg ha-1 yr-1) and three levels of residue return (0, 25%, or 50%) on Weswood silty clay loam near College Station, TX USA. Biomass sorghum was grown continuously from 2009 through 2014. Maximum dry biomass yield (23 Mg ha-1) was produced with added N and 25% residue return in a year with above average precipitation. Overall, N fertilization increased biomass yield by 43 to 104%, while residue return enhanced yield from < 1 to 23% during the six-year study. Averaged for the six years, biomass production for the 0, 25%, and 50% residue return treatments was 16, 20, and 18 Mg ha-1, respectively. Returning 25% of the crop residue significantly increased K uptake in both the 1st and 6th years. Sorghum fertilizer N uptake efficiency (FNUE) with residue return by 2014 was significantly increased compared to 2009 values. Non-limiting N fertilization and 25% residue return significantly increased NO3-N, P, K, and soil organic C (SOC) concentrations in surface (0 to 5 cm) samples and soil total N (TN) and K concentrations within the 60 to 90 cm layer. This study confirms that N fertilization will be required to achieve high biomass sorghum yield and suggests that developing a harvest strategy to return 25% of the crop residue will be sufficient to maintain soil quality.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Buxton DR, Anderson IC, Hallam A (1999) Performance of sweet and forage sorghum grown continuously, double-cropped with winter rye, or in rotation with soybean and maize. Agron J 91: 93-101.

2. Miller FR, McBee GG (1993) Genetics and management of physiological systems of sorghum for biomass production. Biomass Bioenerg 5: 41-49.

3. Rocateli AC, Raper RL, Balkom KS, et al. (2012) Biomass sorghum production and components under different irrigation/tillage systems for the southeastern U.S. Ind Crop Prod 36: 589-598.

4. Rooney WL, Blumenthal J, Bean B, et al. (2007) Designing sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy feedstock. Biofuels Bioproducts Biorrefining1: 147-157.

5. Zegada-Lizarazu W, Zatta A, Monti A (2012) Water uptake efficiency and above- and belowground biomass development of sweet sorghum and maize under different water regimes. Plant Soil 351: 47-60.

6. Griffith AP, Haque M, Epplin FM (2014) Cost to produce and deliver cellulosic feedstock to a biorefinery: switchgrass and forage sorghum. Appl Energ 127: 44-54.

7. Gill JR, Burks PS, Staggenborg SA, et al. (2014) Yield results and stability analysis from the sorghum regional biomass feedstock trial. Bioenerg Res 7: 1026-1034.

8. USDOE (U.S. Department of Energy) (2011) U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry. Perlack RD, StokesBJ.Oak Ridge National Laboratory,Oak Ridge TN, U.S.A., 227.

9. Han KJ, Putnam WD, Alison MW, et al. (2012) Agronomic considerations for sweet sorghum biofuel production in the south-central USA. Bioenerg Res 5: 748-758.

10. Marsalis MA, Bean B (2011) Western forage production guide. United Sorghum Checkoff Program Lubbock, TX 79403.

11. Powell JM, Hons FM (1992) Fertilizer nitrogen and stover removal effects on sorghum yields and nutrient uptake and partitioning. Agr Ecosyst Environ 39: 197-211.

12. Hons FM, Moresco RF, Wiedenfeld RP, et al. (1986) Applied nitrogen and phosphorus effects on yield and nutrient uptake by high-energy sorghum produced for grain and biomass. Agron J 76: 1069-1078.

13. Mullet J, Morishige D, McCormick R, et al. (2014) Energy sorghum- a genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. J Exp Bot 65: 3479-3489.

14. Cadoux S, Ferchaud F, Demay C, et al. (2014) Implication of productivity and nutrient requirements on greenhouse gas balance of annual and perennial bioenergy crops. Bioenergy 6: 425-438.

15. Hagan AK, Bowen KL, Pegues M, et al. (2014) Nitrogen rate and variety impact disease and yield of sorghum for biofuel. Agron J 106: 1205-1211.

16. Tamang PL, Bronson KF, Malpati A, et al. (2011) Nitrogen requirements for ethanol production from sweet and photoperiod sensitive sorghum in the Southern High Plains. Agron J 103: 431-440.

17. Butler T, Bean B (2002) Forage sorghum production guide. Stephenville: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Available from: http://www.soilcropandmore.info/crops/Annual-Forage-Sorghum/ForageSorghumProdGuid.

18. Maughan M, Voight T, Parrish A, et al. (2012) Forage and energy sorghum response tonitrogen fertilization in central and southern Illinois. Agron J 104: 1032-1040.

19. Wortmann CS, Liska AJ, Ferguson RB, et al. (2010) Dryland performance of sweet sorghum and grain crops for biofuel in Nebraska. Agron J 102: 319-326.

20. Hao B, Xue Q, Bean BW, et al. (2014) Biomass production, water and nitrogen use efficiency in photoperiod-sensitive sorghum in the Texas high plains. Biomass Bioenerg 62: 108-116.

21. Barbanti L, Grandi S, Vecchi A, et al. (2006) Sweet and fibre sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) energy crops in the frame of environmental protection from excessive nitrogen loads. Eur J Agron 25: 30-39.

22. ReijndersL (2013) Sustainability of soil fertility and the use of lignocellulosic crop harvest residues for the production of biofuels: a literature review. Environ Technol 34: 1725-1734.

23. Gollany HT, Novak JM, Liang Y, et al. (2010) Simulating soil organic carbon dynamics with residue removal using the CQESTR model. Soil SciSoc Am J 74: 372-383.

24. Karlen DL, Birell SJ, Hess JR (2011) A five year assessment of corn stover in central Iowa USA. Soil Till Res 116: 47-55.

25. Power JF, Koerner PT, Doran JW, et al. (1998) Residual effects of crop residue on grain production and selected soil properties. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62: 1393-1397.

26. Meki MN, Snider JL, Kiniry JR, et al. (2013) Energy sorghum biomass harvest threshold and tillage effects on soil organic carbon and bulk density. Ind Crop Prod 43: 172-182.

27. Johnson JM, Novak JM, Varvel GE, et al. (2014) Crop residue mass needed to maintain soil organic carbon levels: can it be determined? Bioenerg Res 7: 481-490.

28. Wilhelm WW, Johnson JM, Hatfield JL, et al. (2004) Crop and soil productivity response to corn residue removal: a literature review. Agron J 96: 1-17.

29. Wilhelm WW, Johnson JM, Karlen DL, et al. (2007) Corn stover to sustain soil organic carbon further constrains biomass supply. Agron J 99: 1665-1667.

30. Gollany HT, Rickman RW, Liang Y, et al. (2011) Predicting agricultural management influence on long-term soil organic carbon dynamics: implications for biofuel production. Agron J 103: 234-246.

31. Clapp CE, Allmaras RR, Layese ME, et al. (2000) Soil organic carbon and 13C abundance as related to tillage, crop residue, and nitrogen fertilization under continuous corn management in Minnesota. Soil Till Res 55: 127-142.

32. Khan SA, Mulvaney RL, Ellsworth TR, et al. (2007) The myth of nitrogen fertilization for soil carbon sequestration. J Environ Qual 36: 1821-1832.

33. Amatya P, Wight J, Mjelde JW, et al. (2014) Balancing bioenergy and soil productivity returns for sustainable biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L). Moench.) production. Bioenerg Res 7: 1144-1154.

34. Wight JP, Hons FM, Storlien JO, et al. (2012) Management effects on bioenergy sorghum growth, yield and nutrient uptake. Biomass Bioenerg 46: 593-604.

35. Keeney DR, Nelson DW (1982) Nitrogen—inorganic forms, In:Page AL, et al.Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2.Agronomy Monogr 9. 2nd ed. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI, 643-687.

36. Mehlich A (1984) Mehlich-3 soil test extractant—a modification of Mehlich-2 extractant. Commun Soil Sci Plan 15: 1409-1416.

37. McGeehan SL, Naylor DV (1988) Automated instrumental analysis of carbon and nitrogen in plant and soil samples. Commun Soil Sci Plan 19: 493-505.

38. Schulte EE, Hopkins BG (1996) Estimation of soil organic matter by weight loss-on-ignition. In Soil organic matter: analysis and interpretation. Madison, WI, U.S.A. Soil SciSoc Am: 21-27.

39. Storer DA (1984) A simple high sample volume ashing procedure for determination of soil organic-matter. Commun Soil Sci Plan 15: 759-772.

40. Rabenhorst MC (1988) Determination of organic and carbonate carbon in calcareous soils using dry combustion. Soil SciSoc Am J 52: 965-968.    

41. Wang D (1998) Direct measurement of organic carbon content in soils by the Leco CR-12 Carbon Analyzer. Commun Soil Sci Plan 29: 15-21.

42. Havlin JL, Soltanpour PN (1980) A nitric-acid plant-tissue digest method for use with inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Commun Soil Sci Plan 10: 969-980.

43. Adams, WA (1973) The effect of organic matter on the bulk and true densities of some uncultivated podzolic soils. J Soil Sci 24: 10-17.    

44. SAS Institute (2010) SAS system for Windows. Release 9.2, SAS Inst Inc, Cary, North Carolina USA.

45. Doran, JW, Wilhelm NW, Power JF (1984) Crop residue and soil productivity with no-till corn, sorghum, and soybean. Soil SciSoc Am J 48: 640-645.

46. Powell, JM, Unger PW (1998) Alternative to crop residues for sustaining agricultural productivity and natural resource conservation. J SustainAgr 11: 59-65.

47. McCollum T, McCuistion K, Bean B (2005) Brown midrib and photoperiod sensitive forage sorghums. In Proceedings of the 2005 Plains Nutrition Council Spring Conference Publication No. AREC 05-20. Texas A&M University Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Amarillo, TX, 36-46.

48. Olson S, Ritter K, Rooney W, et al. (2012) High biomass yield energy sorghum: developing a genetic model for C4 grass bioenergy crops. Biofuel Bioprod Bioenerg 6: 640-655.

49. Sindelar, AJ, Coulter JA, Lamb JA, et al. (2015) Nitrogen, stover, and tillage management affect nitrogen use efficiency in continuous corn. Agron J 107: 843-850.

50. Langdale GW, Hargrove WL, Giddens J (1984) Residue management in double-crop conservation tillage systems. Agron J 76: 689-694.

51. Gal A, Vyn TJ, Micheli E, et al. (2007) Soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation with long term no till versus moldboard plowing overestimated with tilled-zone sampling depths. Soil Till Res 96: 42-51.

Copyright Info: © 2015, Hamid Shahandeh, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved