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The gene and microRNA networks of stem cells and reprogramming

1 Division of Risk Assessment, Biological Safety Research Center, National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-25-26, Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-9501, Japan
2 Division of Toxicology, Biological Safety Research Center, National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-25-26, Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-9501, Japan

Special Issues: Cellular Reprogramming

The molecular interactions and regulations are dynamically changed in stem cells and reprogramming. This review article mainly focuses on the networks of molecules and epigenetic regulations including microRNA. The stem cells have molecular networks related to the stemness and the reprogramming of differentiated cells include the signaling networks consist of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the genes and the protein modification. The gene expression is regulated by the binding of microRNAs towards the regulating regions of the coding genes. The molecular network pathways in stem cells include Wnt/β-catenin signaling and MAPK signaling, Shh signaling and Hippo signaling pathway. The epigenetic regulation of the genes included in the signaling pathways related to stem cells is mediated by the transcription factors and microRNAs consist of 18–25 nucleotides. Molecular interactions of the signaling proteins in stem cells is at least three factors including the quantity of the molecules partly regulated by the gene transcription and protein synthesis, the modification of the proteins such as phosphorylation, and localization of the molecules. In the epigenetic regulation level, the methylation and acetylation of genomes are critical for the regulation of the transcription. The binding sites and the combination of microRNAs, and regulated genes related to the stem cells and reprogramming are discussed in this review.
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