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Stem cell-based therapies for neurological disorders

Department of Neurosurgery, Keio university school of medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan

Cell-based therapies have been previously performed using fetal tissues for some central nervous system (CNS) disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease. However, it can be difficult to collect a large number of cells for transplantation. Recent studies revealed that some stem cells can act as potential sources of cell-based therapies for degenerative and damaged areas in the CNS. In addition, stem cells can be used as cellular delivery vehicles for brain tumor because of tumor-tropic migratory capacity. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are the most attractive stem cells. iPS cells can be efficiently differentiated to neural stem cells and have the possibilities to overcome the ethical issues associated with ES cells. Therefore, cell-based therapies using iPS cells can be developed specifically for neurological disorders. In this article, we review the characteristics of ES cells, MSCs, and iPS cells as cell sources for stem cell-based therapies, and then discuss preclinical data and ongoing clinical trials for the CNS disorders.
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Keywords induced pluripotent stem cell; embryonic stem cell; mesenchymal stem cell; neural stem cell; neurological disorder; glioblastoma; Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease

Citation: Ryota Tamura, Masahiro Toda. Stem cell-based therapies for neurological disorders. AIMS Cell and Tissue Engineering, 2018, 2(1): 24-46. doi: 10.3934/celltissue.2018.1.24

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