Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Noninvasive Measurement of EKG Properties of 3D Artificial Heart Muscle

1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA
2 Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
3 Indus Instruments, Webster, TX, USA

Developing and testing a custom fabricated 16-electrode noninvasive direct contact system was necessary to assess the electrical properties of bioengineered heart muscle and to further evaluate the efficacy of cardiac constructs. By culturing neonatal rat primary cardiac cells on a fibrin gel, we constructed 3D artificial heart muscle (3D-AHM), as described in previous studies, which were used in validating this novel system. Electrical and mechanical functional assessment of the tissues was performed, which yielded contractile forces of the tissues, electrical field potential characteristics, and tissue conduction velocities (CV) (20–170 cm/s). Immunohistological evaluation revealed the formation of cardiac tissue structures and cardiomyocyte proliferation. EKG data analysis also yielded time delays between signals in the range of 0–38 ms with electrical maps showing some evidence of synchronous contraction within the fabricated tissues. This study demonstrates the effectiveness and practicality of our novel EKG measuring system to acquire distinct electrical metrics of 3D-AHM, which will aid in increasing the viability and applicability of cardiac tissue constructs.
  Article Metrics

Keywords cardiovascular tissue engineering; cardiac construct; conduction velocity; electrical impulse mapping

Citation: Betsy H. Salazar, Kristopher A. Hoffman, Anilkumar K. Reddy, Sridhar Madala, Ravi K. Birla. Noninvasive Measurement of EKG Properties of 3D Artificial Heart Muscle. AIMS Cell and Tissue Engineering, 2017, 1(1): 12-30. doi: 10.3934/celltissue.2017.1.12


  • 1. Colvin-Adams M, Smith JM, Heubner BM, et al. (2015) OPTN/SRTR 2013 Annual Data Report: heart. Am J Transplant: Off J Am Soc Transplant Am Soc Transpl Surg 15 Suppl 2: 1-28.
  • 2. Langer R, and Vacanti JP (1993) Tissue engineering. Science 260: 920-926.    
  • 3. Zimmermann WH, Didie M, Doker S, et al. (2006) Heart muscle engineering: an update on cardiac muscle replacement therapy. Cardiovasc Res 71: 419-429.
  • 4. Bursac N, Papadaki M, Cohen RJ, et al. (1999) Cardiac muscle tissue engineering: toward an in vitro model for electrophysiological studies. Am J Physiol 277: H433-444.
  • 5. Radisic M, Fast VG, Sharifov OF, et al. (2009) Optical mapping of impulse propagation in engineered cardiac tissue. Tissue Eng, Part A 15: 851-860.
  • 6. Shimizu T, Yamato M, Akutsu T, et al. (2002) Electrically communicating three-dimensional cardiac tissue mimic fabricated by layered cultured cardiomyocyte sheets. J Biomed Mater Res 60: 110-117.
  • 7. Ye L, Zimmermann WH, Garry DJ, et al. (2013) Patching the heart: cardiac repair from within and outside. Circ Res 113: 922-932.
  • 8. Baar K, Birla R, Boluyt MO, et al. (2005) Self-organization of rat cardiac cells into contractile 3-D cardiac tissue. FASEB J 19: 275.
  • 9. Blan NR, and Birla RK (2008) Design and fabrication of heart muscle using scaffold-based tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res, Part A 86A: 195-208.
  • 10. Evers R, Khait L, Birla RK (2011) Fabrication of functional cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle pumps in vitro. Artif Organs 35: 69-74.    
  • 11. Huang YC, Khait L, Birla RK (2007) Contractile three-dimensional bioengineered heart muscle for myocardial regeneration. J Biomed Mater Res, Part A 80: 719-731.
  • 12. Khait L, Hodonsky CJ, Birla RK (2009) Variable optimization for the formation of three-dimensional self-organized heart muscle. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol: Anim 45: 592-601.
  • 13. Migneco F, Hollister SJ, Birla RK (2008) Tissue-engineered heart valve prostheses: 'state of the heart'. Regener Med 3: 399-419.
  • 14. Bian W, Badie N, Herman IV, et al. (2014) Robust T-tubulation and maturation of cardiomyocytes using tissue-engineered epicardial mimetics. Biomaterials 35: 3819-3828.
  • 15. Meyer T, Boven KH, Gunther E, et al. (2004) Micro-electrode arrays in cardiac safety pharmacology: a novel tool to study QT interval prolongation. Drug Saf 27: 763-772.
  • 16. Salazar B, Reddy A, Tao Z, et al. (2015) 32-Channel System to Measure the Electrophysiological Properties of Bioengineered Cardiac Muscle. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 62: 1614-1622.
  • 17. Egert U, Banach K, Meyer T (2006) Analysis if Cardiac Myocyte activity Dynamics with Micro-Electrode Arrays, In: Taketani M, Baudry M, Advances in Network Electrophysiology: Using Multi-Electrode Arrays. New York Springer-Verlag, 274-290.
  • 18. Meiry G, Reisner Y, Feld Y, et al. (2001) Evolution of action potential propagation and repolarization in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 12: 1269-1277.
  • 19. Tao ZW, Mohamed M, Hogan M, et al. (2014) Optimizing a spontaneously contracting heart tissue patch with rat neonatal cardiac cells on fibrin gel. J Tissue Eng Regener Med.
  • 20. Shrier A, and Clay JR (1982) Comparison of the pacemaker properties of chick embryonic atrial and ventricular heart cells. J Membr Biol 69: 49-56.
  • 21. Mark GE, and Strasser FF (1966) Pacemaker activity and mitosis in cultures of newborn rat heart ventricle cells. Exp Cell Res 44: 217-233.
  • 22. Fraser RS, Harley C, Wiley T (1967) Electrocardiogram in the normal rat. J Appl Physiol 23: 401-402.


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Betsy H. Salazar, Kristopher A. Hoffman, Anilkumar K. Reddy, Sridhar Madala, Ravi K. Birla, 16-Channel Flexible System to Measure Electrophysiological Properties of Bioengineered Hearts, Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology, 2017, 10.1007/s13239-017-0336-8

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2017, Ravi K. Birla, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved