AIMS Biophysics, 2017, 4(1): 19-32. doi: 10.3934/biophy.2017.1.19

Research article

Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Minimizing Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to titanium surfaces by a plasma nitriding process

1 Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, LabPlasma, 59072-970, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
2 Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Centro de Biotecnologia and Faculdade de Farmácia, Laboratório de Biofilmes e Diversidade Microbiana, 91501-970, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

The research of the interaction between bacteria-surface has great importance for titanium biomedical applications once microorganisms offer risks because promoting implant loss. Therefore, study bacterial adhesion and colonization on titanium is interesting because are principal factors infections pathogeny on biomaterials. In this study, commercial grade II titanium was submitted to nitriding treatment to plasma at 2.2 mbar, using gas mixtures of 80% hydrogen (H2) and 20% nitrogen (N2) during 1 hour and 3 hour. The surfaces were physically and chemically characterized. In order to evaluate bacterial response, the surfaces were exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The titanium surface modified in nitriding plasma, although exposes a higher roughness as compared with untreated samples, exhibited lower bacterial growth. The nitrided sample for 3 hour exhibited the higher amount of TiN phase and the higher concentration of atomic nitrogen on surface and lower bacterial adhered count. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Based on these results can be said to the thermochemical treatment of plasma nitriding on titanium samples results a significant reduction of adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was found that the Ti surface nitrided offers significant reduction of bacterial adherence which prevent biofilm formation and offersing lower risk of infection and implant remotion.
  Article Metrics


1. Garg H, Bedi G, Garg A (2012) Implante surface m odifications: uma revisão. J Clin Diagn Res 6: 319–324.

2. Zhao L, Chu PK, Zhang Y, et al. (2009) Antibacterial revestimentos sobre implantes de titânio. J Biomed Mater Res 91B: 470–480.    

3. Hanawa TJ (2011) A comprehensive review of techniques for biofunctionalization of titanium. Periodontal Implant Sci 41: 263–272.

4. Neoh KG, Hu X, Zheng D, et al. (2012) Balancing osteoblast functions and bacterial adhesion on functionalized titanium surfaces. Biomaterials 33: 2813–2822.    

5. Hori K, Matsumoto S (2010) Bacterial adhesion: from mechanism to control biochemical. Eng J 48: 424–434.

6. Hall-Stoodley L, Costerton JW, Stoodley P (2004) Bacterial biofilms: from the natural environment to infectious diseases. Nat Rev Micro 2: 95–108.    

7. Costerton JW, Stewart PS, Greenberg EP (1999) Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science 284: 1318–1322.    

8. Coenye T, Nelis HJ (2010) In vitro and in vivo model systems to study microbial biofilm formation. J Microbiol Methods 83: 89–105.    

9. Rosenthal VD (2008) Device-associated nosocomial infections in limited-resources countries: findings of the international nosocomial infection control consortium (INICC). Am J Infect Control 36: S171.e177–S171.e112.

10. Chen Y, Zheng X, Xie Y, et al. (2010) Silver release from silver-containing hydroxyapatite coatings. Surf Coat Tech 205: 1892–1896.    

11. Breidenstein EBM, de la Fuente-Núñez C, Hancock REW (2011) Pseudomonas aeruginosa: all roads lead to resistance. Trends Microbiol 19: 419–426.    

12. Campoccia D, Montanaro L, Arciola CR (2006) The significance of infection related to orthopedic devices and issues of antibiotic resistance. Biomaterials 27: 2331–2339.    

13. Kipnis E, Sawa T, Wiener-Kronish J (2006) Targeting mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenesis. Med Mal Infect 36: 78–91.    

14. Lavoie EG, Wangdi T, Kazmierczak BI (2011) Innate immune responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Microbes Infect 13: 1133–1145.

15. Sarró MI, Moreno DA, Ranninger C, et al. (2006) Influence of gas nitriding of Ti6Al4V alloy at high temperature on the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus. Surf Coat Tech 201: 2807–2812.    

16. Scarano A, Piattelli M, Vrespa G, et al. (2003) Bacterial adhesion on titanium nitride-coated and uncoated implants: an in vivo human study. J Oral Implantol 29: 80–85.

17. Annunziata M, Oliva A, Basile MA, et al. (2011) The effects of titanium nitride-coating on the topographic and biological features of TPS implant surfaces. J Dent 39: 720–728.

18. Alves Junior C (2001) Nitretação a plasma: fundamentos e aplicações. Editora UFRN.

19. Aires MM, Oliveira RHA, Maribondo NKAG, et al. (2011) Análise da preferência celular em diferentes superfícies de Ti exposta ao mesmo meio de cultura. Revista Brasileira de Odontologia 68: 1.

20. Costa THC, Feitor MC, Alves Junior C, et al. (2008) Caracterização de filmes de poliéster modificados por plasma de O2 a baixa pressão. Matéria 13: 65–76.

21. Sá JC, de Brito RA, Moura CE, et al. (2009) Influence of argon-ion bombardment of titanium surfaces on the cell behavior. Surf Coat Tech 203: 1765–1770.    

22. de Sousa RRM, de Araújo FO, Barbosa JCP, et al. (2008) Nitriding using cathodic cage technique of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 with addition of CH4. Mat Sci EngA 487: 124–127.    

23. Öner D, McCarthy TJ (2000) Ultrahydrophobic surfaces. Effects of topography length scales on wettability. Langmuir 16: 7777–7782.

24. Deshmukh R, Bhat N (2003) The mechanism of adhesion and printability of plasma processed PET films. Mater Res Innov 7: 283–290.    

25. Trentin DdS, Giordani RB, Zimmer KR, et al. (2011) Potential of medicinal plants from the Brazilian semi-arid region (Caatinga) against Staphylococcus epidermidis planktonic and biofilm lifestyles. J Ethnopharmacol 137: 327–335.    

26. Soltani-Farshi M, Baumann H, Rück D, et al. (1998) Content of hydrogen in boron-, carbon-, nitrogen-, oxygen-, fluorine- and neon-implanted titanium. Surf Coat Tech 103–104: 299–303.

27. Elias CN, Oshida Y, Lima JHC, et al. (2008) Relationship between surface properties (roughness, wettability and morphology) of titanium and dental implant removal torque. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 1: 234–242.    

28. Whitehead SA, Shearer AC, Watts DC, et al. (1995) Comparison of methods for measuring surface roughness of ceramic. J Oral Rehabil 22: 421–427.    

29. Lim YJ, Oshida Y (2001) Initial contact angle measurements on variously treated dental/medical titanium materials. Biomed Mater Eng 11: 325–341.

30. Albrektsson T, Wennerberg A (2004) Oral implant surfaces: part 2—review focusing on clinical knowledge of different surfaces. Int J Prosthodont 17: 544–564.

31. Whitehead SA, Shearer AC, Watts DC, et al. (1999) Comparison of two stylus methods for measuring surface texture. Dent Mater 15: 79–86.    

32. Kasemo B (2002) Biological surface science. Surf Sci 500: 656–677.    

33. Deligianni DD, Katsala N, Ladas S, et al. (2001) Effect of surface roughness of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V on human bone marrow cell response and on protein adsorption. Biomaterials 22: 1241–1251.    

34. Michael KE, Vernekar VN, Keselowsky BG, et al. (2003) Adsorption-induced conformational changes in fibronectin due to interactions with well-defined surface chemistries. Langmuir 19: 8033–8040.    

35. Puckett SD, Taylor E, Raimondo T, et al. (2010) The relationship between the nanostructure of titanium surfaces and bacterial attachment. Biomaterials 31: 706–713.    

36. Xu LC, Siedlecki CA (2007) Effects of surface wettability and contact time on protein adhesion to biomaterial surfaces. Biomaterials 28: 3273–3283.    

37. Truong V, Rundell S, Lapovok R, et al. (2009) Effect of ultrafine-grained titanium surfaces on adhesion of bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 83: 925–937.    

38. Darouiche RO (2004) Treatment of infections associated with surgical implants. N Engl J Med 350: 1422–1429.

39. Pascual A (2002) Pathogenesis of catheter-related infections: lessons for new designs. Clin Microbiol Infect 8: 256–264.    

40. Pavithra D, Doble M (2008) Biofilm formation, bacterial adhesion and host response on polymeric implants—issues and prevention. Biomed Mater 3: 034003.    

41. Treter J, Macedo AJ (2011) Catheters: a suitable surface for biofilm formation. Science against microbial pathogens: communicating current research and technological advances 2: 835–842.

Copyright Info: © 2017, Michelle de Medeiros Aires, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved