Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Double casting prototyping with a thermal aging step for fabrication of 3D microstructures in poly(dimethylsiloxane)

1 Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
2 Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Topical Section: Lab-on-a-Chip, Microfluidics & Microarrays

The paper describes a cheap and accessible technique of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) master treatment by thermal aging as a step of double casting microfabrication process. Three-dimensional PDMS microstructures could have been achieved using this technique. It was proved, that thermal aging changes nanotopology of a PDMS surface and thus enhances efficiency of double casting prototyping. The thermally aged PDMS master could have been used for multiple and correct replication of over 98% of the fabricated microstructures. Moreover, lack of chemical modification preserved the biocompatibility of PDMS devices. The fabricated microstructures were successfully utilized for 3D cell culture.
  Article Metrics


1. Chudy M, Grabowska I, Ciosek P, et al. (2009) Miniaturized tools and devices for bioanalytical applications: an overview. Anal Bioanal Chem 395: 647–668.    

2. Kwapiszewski R, Skolimowski M, Ziółkowska K, et al. (2011) A microfluidic device with fluorimetric detection for intracellular components analysis. Biomed Microdevices 13: 431–440.    

3. Ni M, Tong W, Choudhury D, et al. (2009) Cell culture on MEMS platforms: a review. Int J Mol Sci 10: 5411–5441.    

4. McDonald J, Whitesides G (2002) Poly(dimethylsiloxane) as a material for fabricating microfluidic devices. Acc Chem Res 35: 491–499.    

5. Regehr K, Domenech M, Koepsel J, et al. (2009) Biological implications of polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic cell culture. Lab Chip 9: 2132–2139.    

6. Quake S, Scherer A (2000) From micro-to nanofabrication with soft materials. Science 290: 1536–1540.

7. Velve-Casquillas G, Le Berre M, Piel M, et al.(2010) Microfluidic tools for cell biological research. Nano Today 5: 28–47

8. Leclerc E, Sakai Y, Fujii T (2003) Cell Culture in 3-Dimensional Microfluidic Structure of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane). Biomed Microdevices 5: 109–114.    

9. Ziółkowska K, Jędrych E, Kwapiszewski R, et al. (2010) PDMS/glass microfluidic cell culture system for cytotoxicity tests and cells passage. Sensor Actuat B 145: 533–542    

10. Ziółkowska K, Kwapiszewski R, Brzózka Z (2011) Microfluidic devices as tools for mimicking the in vivo environment. New J Chem 35: 979–990.

11. Ziółkowska K, Kwapiszewski R, Stelmachowska A, et al. (2012) Development of a three-dimensional microfluidic system for long-term tumor spheroid culture. Sensor Actuat B 173: 908–913.    

12. Ziółkowska K, Stelmachowska A, Kwapiszewski R, et al. (2013) Long-term three-dimensional cell culture and anticancer drug activity evaluation in a microfluidic chip. Biosensor Bioelectron 40: 68–74.    

13. Kwapiszewska K, Michalczuk A, Rybka M, et al. (2014) A microfluidic-based platform for tumour spheroid culture, monitoring and drug screening. Lab Chip 14: 2096–2104.    

14. McDonald J, Duffy D, Anderson J, et al. (2000) Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane). Electrophoresis 21: 27–40.

15. Kim J, Heo J, Crooks R (2006) Hybridization of DNA to bead-immobilized probes confined within a microfluidic channel. Langmuir 22: 10130–10134.    

16. Adams M, Johnston M, Scherer A, et al. (2005) Polydimethylsiloxane based microfluidic diode. J Micromech Microeng 15: 1517–1521.    

17. Lim C, Low H, Ng J, et al. (2009) Fabrication of three-dimensional hemispherical structures using photolithography. Microfluid Nanofluid 7: 721–726.

18. Huikko K, Ostman P, Grigoras K, et al. (2003) Poly(dimethylsiloxane) electrospray devices fabricated with diamond-like carbon–poly(dimethylsiloxane) coated SU-8 masters. Lab Chip 3: 67–72.    

19. Gitlin L, Schulze P, Belder D (2009) Rapid replication of master structures by double casting with PDMS. Lab Chip 9: 3000–3002.

20. Zhuang G, Kutter J (2011) Anti-stiction coating of PDMS moulds for rapid microchannel fabrication by double replica moulding. J Micromech Microeng 21: 105020.    

21. Eddington D, Puccinelli J, Beebe D (2006) Thermal aging and reduced hydrophobic recovery of polydimethylsiloxane. Sensor Actuat B 114: 170–172.

22. Briones M, Honda T, Yamaguchi Y, et al. (2006) A Practical Method for Rapid Microchannel Fabrication in Polydimethylsiloxane by Replica Molding without Using Silicon Photoresist. J Chem Eng Jpn 39: 1108–1114.    

23. Koerner T, Brown L, Xie R, et al. (2005) Epoxy resins as stamps for hot embossing of microstructures and microfluidic channels. Sensor Actuat B 107: 632–639.    

24. Wong I, Ho C (2009) Surface molecular property modifications for poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) based microfluidic devices. Microfluid Nanofluid 7: 291–306.    

25. Zhou J, Ellis A, Voelcker N (2010) Recent developments in PDMS surface modification for microfluidic devices. Electrophoresis 31: 2–16.    

26. Leite C, Soares R, Goncalves M, et al. (1994) Surface dynamics of polydimethylsiloxane rubber. Polymer 35: 3173–3177.    

27. Jeong O, Konishi S (2011) Controlling the size of replicable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds/stamps using a stepwise thermal shrinkage process. Microelectron Eng 88: 2286–2289.    

28. Jokinen V, Suvato P, Franssila S (2012) Oxygen and nitrogen plasma hydrophilization and hydrophobic recovery of polymers. Biomicrofluidics 6: 016501–016510.

29. Liu M, Chen Q (2007) Characterization study of bonded and unbonded polydimethylsiloxane aimed for bio-microelectromechanical systems-related applications. J Micro/Nanolith MEMS MOEMS 6: 023008.    

30. Liu M, Sun J, Chen Q (2009) Influences of heating temperature on mechanical properties of polydimethylsiloxane. Sensor Actuat A 151: 42–45.    

Copyright Info: © 2016, Karina Kwapiszewska, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved