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Imaging dose of cone-beam computed tomography in nanoparticle-enhanced image-guided radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo phantom study

1 Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3 Canada
2 Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X6 Canada
3 Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5T 1P5 Canada

Using kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) and heavy-atom radiosensitizers in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) can provide numerous benefits, such as image contrast enhancement in radiation dose delivery. However, the increased use of kV-CBCT for daily imaging procedures may inevitably deposit certain amount of radiation dose to the patient, especially when nanoparticles used as radiosensitizers are involved. In this study, we use Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the imaging dose escalation due to nanoparticle addition with varying nanoparticle material, nanoparticle concentration and photon beam energy. A phantom was used to determine the relationships between the imaging dose enhancement ratios (IDERs) and different concentrations (3–40 mg/ml) of gold (Au), platinum (Pt), iodine (I), silver (Ag) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles, under the delivery of 120–140 kVp photon beams from the CBCT. It is found that gold and platinum nanoparticles of 40 mg/ml concentration had the highest IDER (~1.6) under the 120 kVp photon beam. This nanoparticle addition resulted in a 0.63% increase of imaging dose based on a typical dose prescription of 200 cGy per fraction in radiotherapy, and is within the standard uncertainty of ±5% in radiation dose delivery. This study proves that the incorporation of higher concentration nanoparticles under lower photon beam energy could increase the imaging dose. The results from this study can enable us to understand more about the incorporation of heavy-atom nanoparticles in IGRT systems.
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