Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Evaluating the efficacy of three sanitizing agents for extending the shelf life of fresh-cut baby spinach: food safety and quality aspects

1 Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Tay Nguyen University, 567 Le Duan, Buon Ma Thuot, Daklak 63000, Vietnam
2 Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, School of Land and Food, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Hobart, Tasmania 7005, Australia
3 Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam

Topical Sections: Re-thinking organic food and farming in a changing world

The aims of this project were to: 1) compare the antimicrobial efficacy and feasibility of three sanitizers including chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ), neutral electrolysed water (EW) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA) for the treatment of fresh baby spinach leaves, and 2) to investigate the shelf life and quality attributes of spinach treated with these sanitizers. In the experiment for food safety, spinach leaves were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and then treated by immerging in cold solutions of PAA, ClO 2, EW at different concentrations. Salmonella Typhimurium and total viable count (TVC) were determined immediately before and after the treatment. The treatment with 20 mg/L ClO 2 solution resulted in the highest reductions of S. Typhimurium and TVC (by 1.6 ± 0.1 log CFU/g) compared to other treatments. In the experiment for the shelf life of spinach, the samples were stored at 4 ℃ for 13 days after being treated with 75 mg/L PAA, 60 mg/L free chlorine (FCh) EW and 20 mg/L ClO 2 solutions. The results showed that TVC was significantly influenced by the treatments and storage time. At day 0, TVC of all treated samples was significantly lower than this of the control and the TVC of sample treated with ClO 2 was the lowest. However, by day 10, the TVC was not significantly different among the treated samples and the control. For the sensory qualities and physio-chemical properties of the spinach leaves, the treatment with ClO 2 showed significant reduction in quality of the treated sample since day 7 of the storage while other treatments did not show any significant effect on those parameters during the storage. In summary, although the treatment with 20 mg/L ClO 2 solution resulted in the highest antimicrobial efficacy against S. Typhimurium and TVC of spinach leaves, it also caused negative effects to the quality of spinach during the storage.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords fresh-cut baby spinach; Salmonella Typhimurium; total viable count; sanitizing treatment; storage quality

Citation: Thi-Van Nguyen, Tom Ross, Hoang Van Chuyen. Evaluating the efficacy of three sanitizing agents for extending the shelf life of fresh-cut baby spinach: food safety and quality aspects. AIMS Agriculture and Food, 2019, 4(2): 320-339. doi: 10.3934/agrfood.2019.2.320

References

  • 1. Alzamora SM, Tapia MS, López-Malo A (2000) Minimally processed fruits and vegetables: fundamental aspects and applications. Gaithersburg, Md., Aspen Publishers.
  • 2. Tirpanalan O, Zunabovic M, Domig K, et al. (2011) Mini review: antimicrobial strategies in the production of fresh-cut lettuce products, In: Méndez-Vilas A, Science against Microbial Pathogens: Communicating Current Research and Technological Advances, Formatex Research Center: Badajoz, Spain, 176–188.
  • 3. Martin-Belloso O, Soliva Fortuny R (2010) Advances in Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables Processing. CRC Press.
  • 4. Lamikanra O (2002) Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: science, technology, and market. CRC Press.
  • 5. Sapers GM (2003) Washing and sanitizing raw materials for minimally processed fruit and vegetable products. CRC Press.
  • 6. Gil MI (2009) Fresh-cut product sanitation and wash water disinfection: Problems and solutions. Int J Food Microbiol 134: 37–45.    
  • 7. Middleton A, Chadwick M, Sanderson J, et al. (2000) Comparison of a solution of super- oxidized water (Sterilox®) with glutaraldehyde for the disinfection of bronchoscopes, contaminated in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium- intracellulare in sputum. J Hosp Infect 45: 278–282.    
  • 8. Wei CI, Cook DL, Kirk JR (1985) Use of chlorine compounds in the food industry. Food Technol 39: 107–115.
  • 9. Keskinen LA, Burke A, Annous BA (2009) Efficacy of chlorine, acidic electrolyzed water and aqueous chlorine dioxide solutions to decontaminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from lettuce leaves. Int J Food Microbiol 132: 134–140.    
  • 10. Ramos B, Miller F, Brandão TR, et al. (2013) Fresh fruits and vegetables-an overview on applied methodologies to improve its quality and safety. Innovative Food Sci Emerging Technol 20: 1–15.    
  • 11. Garcia A (2003) Ozone and Chlorine Treatment of Minimally Processed Lettuce. J food Sci 68: 2747–2751.    
  • 12. Thorn R, Lee S, Robinson G, et al. (2012) Electrochemically activated solutions: evidence for antimicrobial efficacy and applications in healthcare environments. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31: 641–653.    
  • 13. Kim JG (2012) Environmental friendly sanitation to improve quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut vegetables. In: Sammour R, Biotechnology–Molecular Studies and Novel Applications for Improved Quality of Human Life, 173–196.
  • 14. Artés F (2009) Sustainable sanitation techniques for keeping quality and safety of fresh-cut plant commodities. Postharvest Biol Technol 51: 287–296.    
  • 15. Colangelo MA, Caruso MC, Favati F, et al. (2015) Electrolysed Water in the Food Industry as Supporting of Environmental Sustainability. In: Vastola A, The Sustainability of Agro-Food and Natural Resource Systems in the Mediterranean Basin, 385–397.
  • 16. El-Ramady HR, Domokos-Szabolcsy É, Abdalla NA, et al. (2015) Postharvest Management ofFruits and Vegetables Storage. In: E Lichtfouse, Sustainable Agriculture Reviews, 65–152.
  • 17. Rahman SME (2016) Electrolyzed Water as a Novel Sanitizer in the Food Industry: Current Trends and Future Perspectives Applications of electrolyzed water. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 15: 471–490.    
  • 18. Idler C, Hassenberg K (2005) Influence of Washing Method on the Quality of Prepacked Iceberg Lettuce. Agric Eng Int 7: 1–8.
  • 19. Lopez-Galvez F (2013) Effect of new sanitizing formulations on quality of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. Postharvest Biol Technol 85: 102–108.    
  • 20. Singh N, Singh R, Bhunia A, et al. (2002) Efficacy of chlorine dioxide, ozone, and thyme essential oil or a sequential washing in killing Escherichia coli O157: H7 on lettuce and baby carrots. LWT- Food Sci Technol 35: 720–729.    
  • 21. López-Gálvez F (2010) Suitability of aqueous chlorine dioxide versus sodium hypochlorite as an effective sanitizer for preserving quality of fresh-cut lettuce while avoiding by-product formation. Postharvest Biol Technol 55: 53–60.    
  • 22. Du J (2002) Inactivation by chlorine dioxide gas (ClO 2 ) of Listeria monocytogenes spotted onto different apple surfaces. Food Microbiol 19: 481–490.    
  • 23. Beuchat LR, Adler BB, Lang MM (2004) Efficacy of chlorine and a peroxyacetic acid sanitizer in killing Listeria monocytogenes on iceberg and romaine lettuce using simulated commercial processing conditions. J Food Prot 67: 1238–1242.    
  • 24. Han Y, Sherman D, Linton RH, et al. (2000) The effects of washing and chlorine dioxide gas on survival and attachment of Escherichia coli O157: H7 to green pepper surfaces. Food Microbiol 17: 521–533.    
  • 25. Sy KV, McWatters KH, Beuchat LR (2005) Efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide as a sanitizer for killing Salmonella, yeasts, and molds on blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries. J Food Prot 68: 1165–1175.    
  • 26. Jin HH (2007) Combined Effect of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide and Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Inhibiting Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in Mungbean Sprouts. J Food Sci 72: M441–M445.    
  • 27. Chen Q (2014) Chlorine dioxide treatment for the removal of pesticide residues on fresh lettuce and in aqueous solution. Food Control 40: 106–112.    
  • 28. Young SB (2003) Mechanisms of killing of Bacillus subtilis spores by hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide. J Appl Microbiol 95: 54–67.    
  • 29. Hilgren JD (2006) Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Peroxyacetic/Octanoic Acid Mixture in Fresh- Cut-Vegetable Process Waters. J Food Sci 65: 1376–1379.
  • 30. King DA, Lucia LM, Castillo A, et al. (2005) Evaluation of peroxyacetic acid as a post-chilling intervention for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium on beef carcass surfaces. Meat Sci 69: 401–407.    
  • 31. Oh SW, Dancer GI, Kang DH (2005) Efficacy of aerosolized peroxyacetic acid as a sanitizer of lettuce leaves. J Food Prot 68: 1743–1747.    
  • 32. Baert L, Vandekinderen I, Devlieghere F, et al. (2009) Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peroxyacetic acid to reduce murine norovirus 1, B40-8, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157: H7 on shredded iceberg lettuce and in residual wash water. J Food prot 72: 1047–1054.    
  • 33. Huang Y-R (2008) Application of electrolyzed water in the food industry. Food Control 19: 329–345.    
  • 34. Hati (2012) Electrolyzed Oxidized Water (EOW): non-thermal approach for decontamination of food borne microorganisms in Food Industry. Food Nutr Sci 3: 760–768.
  • 35. Prilutsky V, Bakhir V (1997) Electrochemically actuating water: anomalous characteristics, mechanism of biological action. VNIIIMT, Moscow.
  • 36. Liao LB, Chen WM, Xiao XM (2007) The generation and inactivation mechanism of oxidation– reduction potential of electrolyzed oxidizing water. J Food Eng 78: 1326–1332.    
  • 37. Fabrizio K, Cutter C (2003) Stability of electrolyzed oxidizing water and its efficacy against cell suspensions of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. J Food Protect 66: 1379–1384.    
  • 38. Denyer SP (1995) Mechanisms of action of antibacterial biocides. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 36: 227–245.
  • 39. McDonnell GG (1999) Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev 12: 147.    
  • 40. Wu VCH, Kim B (2007) Effect of a simple chlorine dioxide method for controlling five foodborne pathogens, yeasts and molds on blueberries. Food Microbiol 24: 794–800.    
  • 41. Lichtenthaler HK, Buschmann C (2001) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Measurement and characterization by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Curr Protoc Food Anal Chem 1: F4.3.1–F4.3.8.
  • 42. Kondo N, Murata M, Isshiki K (2006) Efficiency of sodium hypochlorite, fumaric acid, and mild heat in killing native microflora and Escherichia coli O157: H7, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, and Staphylococcus aureus attached to fresh-cut lettuce. J Food Protect 69: 323–329.    
  • 43. Allende A, Selma MV, López-Gálvez F, et al. (2008) Impact of wash water quality on sensory and microbial quality, including Escherichia coli cross-contamination, of fresh-cut escarole. J Food Protect 71: 2514–2518.    
  • 44. Neal JA, Marquez-Gonzalez M, Cabrera-Diaz E, et al. (2012) Comparison of multiple chemical sanitizers for reducing Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157: H7 on spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves. Food Res Int 45: 1123–1128.    
  • 45. Buchholz A (2010) Reduction of Salmonella on alfalfa seeds using peroxyacetic acid and a commercial seed washer is as effective as treatment with 20000 mg/L of Ca(OCl) 2 Salmonella reduction on alfalfa seed. Lett Appl Microbiol 51: 462–468.    
  • 46. Pinto L, Ippolito A, Baruzzi F (2015) Control of spoiler Pseudomonas spp. on fresh cut vegetables by neutral electrolyzed water. Food Microbiol 50: 102–108.
  • 47. Guentzel JL, Liang Lam K, Callan MA, et al. (2008) Reduction of bacteria on spinach, lettuce, and surfaces in food service areas using neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water. Food Microbiol 25: 36–41.
  • 48. Izumi H (1999) Electrolyzed Water as a Disinfectant for Fresh-cut Vegetables. J Food Sci 64: 536–539.    
  • 49. Tomás-Callejas A, Martínez-Hernández G, Artés F, et al. (2011) Neutral and acidic electrolyzed water as emergent sanitizers for fresh-cut mizuna baby leaves. Postharvest Biol Technol 59: 298–306.    
  • 50. Koca N, Karadeniz F, Burdurlu HS (2007) Effect of pH on chlorophyll degradation and colour loss in blanched green peas. Food Chem 100: 609–615.    
  • 51. Chen Z, Zhu C, Zhang Y, et al. (2010) Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on enzymatic browning and shelf-life of fresh-cut asparagus lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Postharvest Biol Technol 58: 232–238.    
  • 52. Al-Haq MI (2005) Applications of Electrolyzed Water in Agriculture & Food Industries. Food Sci Technol Res 11: 135–150.    
  • 53. Lee KM, Runyon M, Herrman TJ, et al. (2015) Review of Salmonella detection and identification methods: Aspects of rapid emergency response and food safety. Food Control 47: 264–276.    
  • 54. Olaimat AN, Holley RA (2012) Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: A review. Food Microbiol 32: 1–19.    
  • 55. Gómez-López VM, Ragaert P, Ryckeboer J, et al. (2007) Shelf-life of minimally processed cabbage treated with neutral electrolysed oxidising water and stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere. Int J Food Microbiol 117: 91–98.    
  • 56. Koseki S, Yoshida K, Isobe S, et al. (2001) Decontamination of lettuce using acidic electrolyzed water. J Food Protect 64: 652–658.    
  • 57. Nicholl P, Mcinerney S, Prendergast M (2004) Growth dynamics of indigenous microbial populations on vegetables after decontamination and during refrigerated storage. J Food Process Preserv 28: 442–459.    
  • 58. Rico D, Martín-Diana AB, Barry-Ryan C, et al. (2008) Use of neutral electrolysed water (EW) for quality maintenance and shelf-life extension of minimally processed lettuce. Innovative Food Sci Emerging Technol 9: 37–48.    
  • 59. Annous BA, Burke A, Sites JE (2004) Surface pasteurization of whole fresh cantaloupes inoculated with Salmonella Poona or Escherichia coli. J Food Protect 67: 1876–1885.    
  • 60. Matile P, Hörtensteiner S, Thomas H (1999) Chlorophyll degradation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 50: 67–95.    
  • 61. Martínez-Sánchez A, Allende A, Bennett RN, et al. (2006) Microbial, nutritional and sensory quality of rocket leaves as affected by different sanitizers. Postharvest Biol Technol 42: 86–97.    
  • 62. Yamauchi N, Watada AE (1991) Regulated chlorophyll degradation in spinach leaves during storage. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 116: 58–62.    
  • 63. Gómez-López VM (2008) Shelf-life of minimally processed lettuce and cabbage treated with gaseous chlorine dioxide and cysteine. Int J Food Microbiol 121: 74–83.    
  • 64. Du J, Fu Y, Wang N (2009) Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on browning of fresh- cut lotus root. LWT-Food Sci Technol 42: 654–659.    
  • 65. Moore ER (2004) Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of iron(II) ion by chlorine dioxide in aqueous solution. Int J Chem Kinet 36: 554–564.    
  • 66. FDA (2016) Consumer Updates-Irradiation: A Safe Measure for Safer Iceberg Lettuce and Spinach. Available from: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fdcc/?set=FCN&id=1634.
  • 67. Vandekinderen I, Devlieghere F, De Meulenaer B, et al. (2009) Optimization and evaluation of a decontamination step with peroxyacetic acid for fresh-cut produce. Food Microbiol 26: 882–888.    
  • 68. Polkinghorne B, Draper A, Harlock M, et al. (2017) OzFoodNet into the future: the rapid evolution of foodborne disease surveillance in Australia. Microbiol Aust 38: 179–183.

 

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved