Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Effect of NPK rates and irrigation frequencies on the growth and yield performance of Trifolium alexandrium L.

1 China Agricultural University, Beijing, 1000193, China
2 Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, 70060, Pakistan

The limiting of water resource and traditional farming practices are threatening the sustainability of important minor crops in Pakistan, including berseem, which is a key source of fodder for dairy farms. Each year, 2% reduction of cultivated area, low yield and grower’s non-preference (to rotate or replace wheat-cotton pattern) factors are adversely affecting the livestock sector. Consequently, animal rearing business is suffering badly due to lack of fresh forage in the country. Therefore, a three-replicated randomized complete block design (RCBD) field experiment was conducted during rabi season to evaluate berseem crop in term of yield and profit under existing farming practice (85:115:00 NPK kg ha1 + 12 irrigations with 15 days intervals) and optimized treatments (70:100:30 NPK kg ha1, 55:85:15 NPK kg ha1 + 12, 08, 04 irrigations + 15, 18, 21 days intervals). The net plot size was 12 m2 with a pH range of 8.1 silty clay loam soil type. In addition, the climate was monitored as well, there was no rainfall observed during the entire crop period. The analysis of statistical data showed a significant (p < 0.05) vegetative, reproductive and economic performance of berseem in optimized farming practices compared to traditional practice. Thus, maximum plant height, leaves plant1, branches plant1, plant weight, fodder and seed yield, net profit, and profit on $1 (81.8 cm, 100.8, 36.0, 19.3 (g), 72.0 t, 829.30 kg ha1, $1910.8 ha1, $2.03 respectably) were measured from treatment 70:100:30 NPK kg ha1 + 12 irrigations at 15 days intervals, which is recommended to the farmers of synonymic agro-environmental conditions. Furthermore, the treatment 70:100:30 NPK kg ha1 + 8 irrigations was also better with the aspect of satisfactory outcome and 33% less use of water.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Saeed B, Durrani Y, Hasina G, et al. (2011) Forage yield of berseem (Trifolium alaxandrium L.) as affected by phosphorus and potassium fertilization. African J Biotec 10: 13815–13817.

2. NARC Islamabad, Fodder Research Program, 2011. Available from: http://www.parc.gov .pk/index.php/en/csi/137-narc/crop-sciences-institue/714-fodder-program.

3. Mukherjee AK, Mandal SR, Patra BC (2000) Effect of planting date, irrigation intervals and level of phosphorous application on seed yield of shaftal. Environ Ecolo 18: 506–508.

4. Sher F, Latif MT, Hussain M, et al. (2016) Impact of berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) cultivation on productivity of subsequent crops in wheat-rice system. Int J Adv Res Biol Sci 3: 16–20.

5. Chaudhry AR (1994) Fodder crops. In: Nazeer S., Crop Production, Eds., National Book Foundation, Islamabad, 392.

6. Rethwish MD, Nelson J, Graves WL, et al. (2002) Comparative yield of four berseem clover varieties in response to three fall 2000 planting dates. Forage Grain.

7. Al-Khateeb SA (2004) Impact of nitrogen fertilizer and water deficit on forage yield of Egyptian clover-rye grass mixture. Egypt J Appl Sci 19: 540–554.

8. Fatima Z, Zia M, Chaudhary MF (2006) Effect of Rhizobium strains and phosphorus on growth of soybean Glycine max and survival of Rhizobium and P-solubilizing bacteria. Pak J Bot 38: 459.

9. Khalid M, Ijaz A, Muhammad A (2003) Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the fodder yield and quality of two Sorghum cultivars (Sorghum bicolor L.). Int J Agri Biol 5: 61–63.

10. Patel PC, Kotecha AV (2006) Effect of phosphorus and potassium on growth characters, forage yield, nutrient uptake and quality of Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). Ind J Agron 51: 242–244.

11. Srinivasarao C, Masood A, Ganeshamurthy AN, et al. (2003) Potassium requirements of pulse crops. Better Crops Int 17: 8–11.

12. Tariq M, Hameed S, Malik KA, et al. (2007) Plant root associated bacteria for zinc mobilization in rice. Pak J Bot 39: 245.

13. Akmal M, Kausar N, Habib G, et al. (2010) Yield comparison of forage legumes under partial stress and normal irrigation. Sarhd J Agric 26: 507–513.

14. Jalota SK, Sood A, Vitale JD, et al. (2007) Simulated crop yields response to irrigation water and economic analysis: Increasing irrigated water use efficiency in the Indian Punjab. Agron J 99: 1073–1084.    

15. El-Bably AZ (2002). Effect of irrigation and nutrition of copper and molybdenum on Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrnium L). Agron J 94: 189–193.

16. Data analysis software for researchers, Analytical Software, PO Box 12185, Tallahassee, FL 32317. USA, Available from: https://www.statistix.com/.

17. Frossard E, Bucher M, Machler F, et al. (2000) Potential for increasing the content and bioavailability of Fe, Zn and Ca in plants for human nutrition. J Sci Food Agric 80: 861–879.    

18. Aulakh MS, Pasricha NS (1977) Interaction effect of sulphur and phosphorus on growth and nutrient content of moong (Phaseolus aureus L.). Plant Soil 47: 341–350.    

19. Ali A, Sharif M, Wahid F, et al. (2014) Effect of composted rock phosphate with organic material on yield and phosphorus uptake of berseem and maize. Am J Plant Sci 26: 975–984.

20. Roy DC, Jana K (2016) Biomass production and quality of berseem fodder (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) as influenced by application of phosphorus and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Adv Life Sci 5: 1225–1229.

21. Ayub M, Nadeem MA, Naeem M, et al. (2012) Effect of different levels of P and K on growth, forage yield andquality of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus L.). J Anim Plant Sci 22: 479–483.

22. Daneshnia F, Amini A, Chaichi MR (2016) Berseem clover quality and basil essential oil yield in intercropping system under limited irrigation treatments with surfactant. Agric Water Manage 164: 331–339.    

23. Iannucci A, Rascio A, Russo M, et al. (2000) Physiological responses of water stress following a conditioning period in berseem clover. Plant Soil 223: 217–227.

24. Ram H, Dadhwal V, Vashist KK, et al. (2013) Grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to irrigation levels and rice straw mulching in North West India. Agric Water Manage 128: 92–101.

25. Lazaridou M, Tsiridis A (2004) Soil water deficit effects on growth and physiology of berseem clover. In: Proceedings International Soil Congress (ISC), Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development, Erzrum, Turkey, 17–23.

26. Yosef E, Carmi A, Nikbachat M, et al. (2009) Characteristics of tall versus short-type varieties of forage sorghum grown under two irrigation levels, for summer and subsequent fall harvests, and digestibility by sheep of their silages. Anim Feed Sci Technol 152: 1–11.    

27. Din SI, Ullah GD, Khan M, et al. (2014) Sowing dates and irrigation schedule influenced on yield and yield components of berseem in district Peshawar. J Nat Sci Res 4: 91–95.

28. Ouda SA, Elenin RA, Shreif MA (2010) Simulating the effect of deficit irrigation on Egyptian clover yield and water productivity. Fourteenth international water technology conference, IWTC 14, Cairo, Egypt, 319–329.

29. Khan I, Jan AU, Khan I, et al. (2012) Wheat and berseem cultivation: A comparison of profitability in district peshawar. Sarhad J Agric 28: 83–88.

© 2018 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved