Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields in Ghana

1 Forest and Horticultural Crops Research Centre-Kade, School of Agriculture (SOA), College of Basic and Applied Sciences (CBAS), University of Ghana (UG), Legon; Department of Crop Science, UG, Legon
2 Department of Crop Science, SOA, CBAS, UG, Legon
3 West African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of Ghana, Legon
4 Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Israel

A survey for cassava mosaic disease (CMD) was carried out in Ghana from 2007−2008 to determine the status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields. The survey covered cassava growing areas in five major cassava producing regions of Ghana. Out of 136 fields visited, the plants in 5% were not affected by CMD, 18% contained plants with mild symptoms, whereas 77% had cassava with moderately severe or severe symptoms. A total of 412 cassava leaf samples and a symptomatic Manihot glaziovii sample were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) alone was detected in 42.0% of symptomatic cassava leaves with the remaining 58% being mixed infected by ACMV and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV). Mixed ACMV and EACMV infections were detected in symptomatic M. glaziovii, two non-symptomatic cassava samples and in individual whitefly vectors. EACMV was not detected alone in any cassava or whitefly sample. South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV), Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV), East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV) and the Uganda strain of EACMV were not detected in any cassava or whitefly sample. The occurrence of high proportion of mixed infections of cassava by cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs), which could lead to emergence of new species or variants in the country, require concerted effort to mitigate the CMD problem.
  Article Metrics

Keywords cassava mosaic disease; begomovirus; polymerase chain reaction

Citation: Stephen K. Torkpo, Kwame Offei, Eric Y. Danquah, Yedidya Gafni. Status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields in Ghana. AIMS Agriculture and Food, 2017, 2(3): 279-289. doi: 10.3934/agrfood.2017.3.279


  • 1. Bokanga M, Otoo E (1994) Cassava based foods: how safe are they. In: Tropical Root Crops in a Developing Economy. Ofori, F. and Hahn, S. K. Eds., Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops, pp. 225-234
  • 2. MOFA (2016) Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Statistics Research and Information Directorate, Accra.
  • 3. FAO (2006) FAO year book on Ghana.
  • 4. Sseruwagi P, Sserubombwe WS, Legg JP, et al. (2004) Methods of surveying the incidence and severity of cassava mosaic disease and whitefly vector populations in Africa: a review. Virus Res 100: 129-142.    
  • 5. Doku EV (1966) Root crops in Ghana. Ghana J Sci 6: 15-36.
  • 6. Swanson MM, Harrison BD (1994) Properties, relationships and distribution of cassava mosaic geminiviruses. Trop Sc 34: 15-25.
  • 7. Thresh JM, Fargette D, Otim-Nape GW (1994) Effects of African cassava mosaic geminivirus on the yield of cassava. Trop Sc 34: 26-42.
  • 8. Otim-Nape GW, Shaw MW, Thresh JM (1994) The effects of African cassava mosaic geminivirus on the growth and yield of cassava in Uganda. Trop Sc 34: 43-54.
  • 9. Legg JP, Fauquet CM (2004) Cassava mosaic geminiviruses in Africa. Plant Mol Biol 56: 585-599.    
  • 10. Fauquet CM, Stanley J (2003) Geminivirus classification and nomenclature: progress and problems. Ann Appl Biol 142: 165-189.    
  • 11. Fondong VN, Pita JS, Rey MEC, et al. (2000) Evidence of the synergism between African cassava mosaic virus and a new double-recombinant geminivirus infecting cassava in Cameroon. J Gen Virol 1: 287-297.
  • 12. Pita JS, Fondong VN, Sangaré A, et al. (2001a) Recombination, pseudorecombination and synergism of geminiviruses are determinant keys to the epidemic of severe cassava mosaic disease in Uganda. J Gen Virol 82: 655-665.
  • 13. Offei SK, Owuna-Kwakye M, Thottappilly G (1999) First report of East African cassava mosaic begomovirus in Ghana. Plant Dis 83: 877.
  • 14. Torkpo SK, Offei SK (2007) Status of cassava mosaic disease in farmers' fields. Book of Abstracts of the 25th Biennial Conference of the Ghana Science Association held at Bunso and Tafo in the Eastern Region between August 5-10, 2007.
  • 15. Hahn SK, Terry ER, Leuschner K (1980) Breeding cassava for Resistance to cassava mosaic disease. Euphyt 29: 673-683.    
  • 16. QIAGEN (2004) DNeasy plant mini and DNeasy plant maxi handbook for isolation of DNA from plant tissue.
  • 17. Cenis JL, Perez P, Fereres A (1993) Identification of Aphid (Homoptera:Aphididae) species and clones by RAPDs. Ann EntomolSoc Amer 85: 546-550.
  • 18. Pita JS, Fondong VN, Sangaré A, et al. (2001b) Genomic and biological diversity of the African cassava geminivirus. Euphyt 120: 115-125.
  • 19. Owor B, Legg JP, Okao-Okuja G, et al (2005) The effect of cassava mosaic geminiviruses on symptom severity, growth and root yield of a cassava mosaic virus disease-susceptible cultivar in Uganda. Ann Appl Biol 145: 331-337.
  • 20. Owor B, Legg JP, Okao-Okuja G, et al. (2004) Field Studies of Cross Protection with Cassava Mosaic Geminiviruses in Uganda. J Phytopathol 152: 243-249.    
  • 21. Ariyo OA, Koerbler M, Dixon AGO, et al. (2005) MolecularVariability and Distribution of Cassava Mosaic Begomoviruses in Nigeria. J Phytopathol 153: 226-231.    
  • 22. Ogbe FO, Thottappilly G, Dixon AGO, et al. (2003) Variants of East African cassava mosaic virus and its distribution in double infections with African cassava mosaic virus in Nigeria. Plant Dis 87: 229-232    
  • 23. Ogbe FO, Dixon AGO, Hughes Jd'A, et al. (2006) Status of cassava begomoviruses and their new natural hosts in Nigeria. Plant Dis 90: 548-553.    
  • 24. Neuenschwander P, Hughes Jd'A, Ogbe F, et al. (2002) The occurrence of the Ugandan Variant of East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-Ug) in western Democratic Republic of Congo and the Congo Republic defines the westernmost extent of the CMD pandemic in East/Central Africa. Plant Pathol 51: 385.    
  • 25. Were HK, Winter S, Maiss E (2004a) Occurrence and distribution of cassava begomovirses in Kenya. Ann Appl Biol 145: 175-184.
  • 26. Were HK, Winter S, Maiss E (2004a) Variations and taxonomic status of begomoviruses causing severe epidemics of cassava mosaic disease in Kenya, Uganda, and Democratic Republic of the Congo. J Gen Plant Pathol 70: 243-248.
  • 27. Bull SE, Briddon RW, Sserubombwe WS, et al. (2006) Genetic diversity and phylogeography of cassava mosaic viruses in Kenya. J Gen Virol 87: 3053-3065.    
  • 28. Busogoro JP, Masquellier L, Kummert J, et al. (2008) Application of a Simplified Molecular Protocol to Reveal Mixed Infections with Begomoviruses in Cassava. J Phytopathol 156: 452-457.
  • 29. Alabi OJ, Ogbe FO, Bandyopadhyay R, et al. (2007) The occurrence of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in natural hosts other than cassava in Nigeria. J Phytopathol 97: S3
  • 30. Kumar PL, Akinbade SA,Dixon AGO, et al. (2008) First report of the occurrence of East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda (EACMV-UG) in Angola. New Disease Report.
  • 31. Legg JP, Ndjelassili F, Okao-Okuja G (2003) First report of cassava mosaic disease and cassava mosaic geminiviruses in Gabon. New Disease Report.
  • 32. Sserubombwe WS, Briddon RW, Baguma YK, et al. (2008) Diversity of begomoviruses associated with mosaic disease of cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relative (Manihot glaziovii Müll. Arg.) in Uganda. J Gen Virol 89: 1759-1769.
  • 33. Ariyo OA, Atiri GI, Dixon AGO, Winter S (2006) The use of biolistic inoculation of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in screening cassava for resistance to cassava mosaic disease. J Virological Methods 137: 43-50    


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Angela O. Eni, Oghenevwairhe P. Efekemo, Olabode A. Onile‐ere, Justin S. Pita,  South West and North Central Nigeria: Assessment of cassava mosaic disease and field status of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic virus , Annals of Applied Biology, 2020, 10.1111/aab.12647

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2017, Stephen K. Torkpo, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved