Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Comparison of three sensory characterization methods based on consumer perception for the development of a novel functional cereal-based dessert

1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Science, Food Science and Technology/National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Student Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box 19395-4741, Tehran, Iran

Milk can be modified by several processes to yield numerous kinds of food products with specific functional properties besides increasing the food value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of various concentration of cereal flours (10–16%), inulin (6 and 8%) and sugar (2 and 4%) on sensory characteristic, consumer acceptance and drivers of liking of a new low sugar/fat prebiotic dairy dessert. In this way, descriptive analysis with trained panelists and three consumer profiling techniques were used and the agreement between them was compared. Nine samples of desserts with different concentration of flour, inulin and sugar were formulated using a mixture design. The samples were evaluated by a panel of 120 consumers, randomly divided into three groups of 40, who evaluated sensory characteristics of the desserts using intensity scale, or a check-all-that-apply (CATA questions) or open-ended questions. Results revealed that various concentration of cereal flours, inulin and sugar resulted in significant changes in the sensory properties of the desserts. Adding higher levels of inulin and sugar led to lower intensities in attributes thickness and creaminess. Samples with higher level of flour and lower level of inulin and sugar were liked by consumers and their high intensities in creaminess and thickness drove liking. Results showed that all the three consumer profiling techniques yielded similar information to descriptive analysis with the trained panel. Likewise, sample configurations from the CATA questions were the most similar to those afforded by the panel of trained assessors. These methodologies could be appealing techniques to investigate the relationship between sensory data and consumer description. Moreover, sensory techniques using consumer perception showed to be valuable to develop functional dessert, which is very important in market succession.
  Article Metrics

Keywords cereal; check all that apply; intensity scale; open-ended question; prebiotic dessert

Citation: Masoud Ghanbari, Jahan B Ghasemi, Amir M Mortazavian. Comparison of three sensory characterization methods based on consumer perception for the development of a novel functional cereal-based dessert. AIMS Agriculture and Food, 2017, 2(3): 258-278. doi: 10.3934/agrfood.2017.3.258


  • 1. Labrecque J, Doyon M, Bellavance F, et al. (2006) Acceptance of functional foods: A comparison of French, American, and French Canadian consumers. Can J Agr Econ 54: 647-661.    
  • 2. Roberfroid MB (2002) Functional foods: concepts and application to inulin and oligofructose. Br J Nutr 87: S139-S143.    
  • 3. Tárrega A, Costell E (2006) Effect of inulin addition on rheological and sensory properties of fat-free starch-based dairy desserts. Int Dairy J 16: 1104-1112.    
  • 4. Tungland B, Meyer D (2002) Nondigestible oligo‐and polysaccharides (Dietary Fiber): their physiology and role in human health and food. Compr Rev Food Sci. Food Saf 1: 90-109.    
  • 5. Singh BP, Jha A, Sharma N, et al. (2013) Optimization of a Process and Development of a Shelf Life Prediction Model for Instant Multigrain Dalia Mix. J Food Process Eng 36: 811-823.    
  • 6. Mandge HM, Sharma S, Dar BN (2014) Instant multigrain porridge: effect of cooking treatment on physicochemical and functional properties. J Food Sci Technol 51: 97-103.    
  • 7. Helland MH, Wicklund T, Narvhus JA (2004) Growth and metabolism of selected strains of probiotic bacteria in milk-and water-based cereal puddings. Int Dairy J 14: 957-965.    
  • 8. Chollet M, Gille D, Schmid A, et al. (2013) Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt. J Dairy Sci 96: 5501-5511.    
  • 9. Ares G, Baixauli R, Sanz T, et al. (2009) New functional fibre in milk puddings: Effect on sensory properties and consumers' acceptability. LWT-Food Sci Technol 42: 710-716.    
  • 10. Varela P, Ares G, Giménez A, et al. (2010) Influence of brand information on consumers' expectations and liking of powdered drinks in central location tests. ‎Food Qual Prefer 21: 873-880.    
  • 11. Bruzzone F, Vidal L, Antúnez L, et al. (2015) Comparison of intensity scales and CATA questions in new product development: Sensory characterisation and directions for product reformulation of milk desserts. ‎Food Qual Prefer 44: 183-193.
  • 12. De Wijk RA, van Gemert LJ, Terpstra ME, et al. (2003) Texture of semi-solids; sensory and instrumental measurements on vanilla custard desserts. ‎Food Qual Prefer 14: 305-317.    
  • 13. Elmore JR, Heymann H, Johnson J, et al. (1999) Preference mapping: Relating acceptance of "creaminess" to a descriptive sensory map of a semi-solid. ‎Food Qual Prefer 10: 465-475.
  • 14. Moussaoui KA, Varela P (2010) Exploring consumer product profiling techniques and their linkage to a quantitative descriptive analysis. ‎Food Qual Prefer 21: 1088-1099.
  • 15. Lawless HT, Heymann H (2010) Sensory evaluation of food: principles and practices, Springer Science & Business Media.
  • 16. Kermit M, Lengard V (2005) Assessing the performance of a sensory panel-panellist monitoring and tracking. J Chemom 19: 154-161.    
  • 17. Faye P, Brémaud D, Teillet E, et al. (2006) An alternative to external preference mapping based on consumer perceptive mapping. Food Qual Prefer 17: 604-614.    
  • 18. Ares G (2015) Methodological challenges in sensory characterization. Curr Opin Food. Sci 3: 1-5.    
  • 19. Adams J WA, Lancaster B (2007) Advantages and uses of check-all-that-apply response compared to traditional scaling of attributes for salty snacks. 7th Pangborn sensory science symposium. pp. 16.
  • 20. Ten Kleij F, Musters PA (2003) Text analysis of open-ended survey responses: A complementary method to preference mapping. ‎Food Qual Prefer 14: 43-52.
  • 21. Gains N (1994) Measurement of food preferences, N.Gains, Author, The repertory grid approach, New York: Springer US, 51-76.
  • 22. Bruzzone F, Ares G, Giménez A (2012) consumers'texture perception of milk desserts. ii–comparison with trained assessors'data. J Texture Stud 43: 214-226.
  • 23. Valentin D, Chollet S, Lelievre M, et al. (2012) Quick and dirty but still pretty good: A review of new descriptive methods in food science. Int J Food Sci Technol 47: 1563-1578.    
  • 24. Varela P, Ares G (2012) Sensory profiling, the blurred line between sensory and consumer science. A review of novel methods for product characterization. Food Res Int 48: 893-908.
  • 25. Lobato LP, Grossmann M, Benassi M (2009) Inulin addition in starch-based dairy desserts: instrumental texture and sensory aspects. Revista de Agaroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos 15: 317-323.    
  • 26. Matser AM, Steeneken PA (1997) Rheological properties of highly cross-linked waxy maize starch in aqueous suspensions of skim milk components. Effects of the concentration of starch and skim milk components. Carbohydr Polym 32: 297-305.
  • 27. Abu-Jdayil B, Mohameed HA, Eassa A (2004) Rheology of wheat starch-milk-sugar systems: effect of starch concentration, sugar type and concentration, and milk fat content. J Food Eng 64: 207-212.    
  • 28. Christianson D (1982) Hydrocolloid interactions with starches [Food chemistry].
  • 29. Zimeri J, Kokini J (2003) Phase transitions of inulin–waxy maize starch systems in limited moisture environments. Carbohydr Polym 51: 183-190.    
  • 30. Jellema RH, Janssen AM, Terpstra ME, et al. (2005) Relating the sensory sensation 'creamy mouthfeel'in custards to rheological measurements. J Chemom 19: 191-200.    
  • 31. Kokini J, Kadane J, Cussler E (1977) liquid texture perceived in the mouth1. J Texture Stud 8: 195-218.    
  • 32. Cussler E, Kokini JL, Weinheimer RL, et al. (1979) Food texture in the mouth. Food tech.
  • 33. González-Tomás L, Bayarri S, Costell E (2009) Inulin-enriched dairy desserts: Physicochemical and sensory aspects. J Dairy Sci 92: 4188-4199.    
  • 34. Husson F (2005) Multiple factor analysis with confidence ellipses: a methodology to study the relationships between sensory and instrumental data. J Chemom 19: 138-144.    
  • 35. Perrin L, Symoneaux R, Maître I, et al. (2008) Comparison of three sensory methods for use with the Napping® procedure: Case of ten wines from Loire valley. ‎Food Qual Prefer 19: 1-11.
  • 36. Cadena RS, Caimi D, Jaunarena I, et al. (2014) Comparison of rapid sensory characterization methodologies for the development of functional yogurts. Food Res Int 64: 446-455.    
  • 37. Reinbach HC, Giacalone D, Ribeiro LM, et al. (2014) Comparison of three sensory profiling methods based on consumer perception: CATA, CATA with intensity and Napping®. ‎Food Qual Prefer 32: 160-166.


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Aly R. Abdel-Moemin, Joe M. Regenstein, Manal K. Abdel-Rahman, New Food Products for Sensory-Compromised Situations, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2018, 17, 6, 1625, 10.1111/1541-4337.12399
  • 2. Anne Saint‐Eve, Pablo Granda, Guillaume Legay, Gérard Cuvelier, Julien Delarue, Consumer acceptance and sensory drivers of liking for high plant protein snacks, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2019, 99, 8, 3983, 10.1002/jsfa.9624
  • 3. Sultan Arslan-Tontul, Mustafa Erbas, Co-Culture Probiotic Fermentation of Protein-Enriched Cereal Medium (Boza), Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2019, 1, 10.1080/07315724.2019.1612796

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2017, Jahan B Ghasemi, Amir M Mortazavian, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved