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Elucidating the novel biomarker and therapeutic potentials of High-mobility group box 1 in Subarachnoid hemorrhage: A review

Department of Medicine, Princefield University, P. O. Box MA 128, Ho-Volta Region, Ghana West Africa

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently arises after an aneurysm in a cerebral artery ruptures, resulting into bleeding as well as clot formation. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an extremely preserved, universal protein secreted in the nuclei of all cell varieties. This review explores the biomarker as well as therapeutic potentials of HMBG1 in SAH especially during the occurrence of cerebral vasospasms. Plasma HMGB1 levels have proven to be very useful prognosticators of effective outcome as well as death after SAH. Correspondingly, higher HMGB1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of SAH patients correlated well with poor outcome; signifying that, CSF level of HMGB1 is a novel predictor of outcome following SAH. Nonetheless, the degree of angiographic vasospasm does not always correlate with the degree of neurological deficits in SAH patients. HMGB1 stimulated cerebral vasospasm, augmented gene as well as protein secretory levels of receptor for advance glycation end product (RAGE) in neurons following SAH; which means that, silencing HMGB1 during SAH could be of therapeutic value. Compounds like resveratrol, glycyrrhizin, rhinacanthin, purpurogallin, 4′-O-β-D-Glucosyl-5-O-Methylvisamminol (4OGOMV) as well as receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) gene are capable of interacting with HMGB1 resulting in therapeutic benefits following SAH.
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