Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

A Polymorphism Related to Methylation Influences Attention during Performance of Speeded Skills

University of Oregon, USA

Topical Section: Neural Mechanisms of Attention

The executive attention network is important for resolving conflict among responses thus allowing us to control voluntary behavior in the face of competition. We have previously shown that individual differences in the efficiency of performing conflict tasks are related to genetic differences. In this study we examine whether performance by adults in conflict tasks is related to a polymorphism that influences the efficiency of methylation. We find that variation in a gene associated with higher rates of methylation is related to better performance in speeded tasks involving the resolution of conflict. Reaction time in conflict tasks improves with development and with practice. Although most theories of skilled performance support a monotonic improvement in reaction time with practice, our data suggest that for some people, waning attention can lead to an increase in reaction time late in practice. Variation in a gene facilitating norepinephrine production was associated with increased reaction time. We discuss the efficiency of myelination and release of dopamine within neural networks relevant to the resolution of conflict as possible mechanisms for methylation as an influence on skilled behavior.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Petersen SE, Posner MI (2012) The attention system of the human brain: 20 years after. Annu Rev Neurosci 35: 73-89.    

2. Green AE, Munafo MR, DeYoung CG, et al. (2008) Using genetic data in cognitive neuroscience: from growing pains to genuine insights. Nat Rev Neurosci 9: 710-720.    

3. Posner MI, Rothbart MK, Sheese BE (2007) Attention genes. Dev Sci 10: 24-29.    

4. Diamond A, Briand L, Fossella J, et al. (2004) Genetic and neurochemical modulation of prefrontal cognitive functions in children. Am J Psychiat 161: 125-132.    

5. Osinsky R, Hewig J, Alexander N, et al. (2012) COMT Val158Met genotype and the common basis of error and conflict monitoring. Brain Res 1452: 108-118.    

6. Greene CM, Bellgrove MA, Gill M, et al. (2009) Noradrenergic genotype predicts lapses in sustained attention. Neuropsychologia 47: 591-594.    

7. Voelker P, Sheese B, Rothbart M, et al. (2016) Methylation polymorphisms influence practice effects in children during attention tasks. J Cogn Neurosci, submitted.

8. Day JJ, Childs D, Guzman-Karlsson MC, et al. (2013) DNA methylation regulates associative reward learning. Nat Neurosci 16: 1445-1452.    

9. Kamdar KY, Krull KR, El-Zein RA, et al. (2011) Folate pathway polymorphisms predict deficits in attention and processing speed after childhood leukemia therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57: 454-460.    

10. Tsai SJ, Hong CJ, Yeh HL, et al. (2011) Heterozygote advantage of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on specific cognitive performance in elderly Chinese males without dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 32: 159-163.    

11. Roffman JL, Weiss AP, Deckersbach T, et al. (2008) Interactive effects of COMT Val108/158Met and MTHFR C677T on executive function in schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet B 147B: 990-995.    

12. Fan J, McCandliss BD, Sommer T, et al. (2002) Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks. J Cogn Neurosci 14: 340-347.    

13. Eriksen BA, Eriksen CW (1974) Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Percept Psychophys 16: 143-149.    

14. Fan J, McCandliss BD, Fossella J, et al. (2005) The activation of attentional networks. NeuroImage 26: 471-479.

15. Curran TaK SW (1993) Attentional and nonattentional forms of sequence learning. J Exp Psychol 19: 189-202.

16. Daniels JK, Williams NM, Williams J, et al. (1996) No evidence for allelic association between schizophrenia and a polymorphism determining high or low catechol O-methyltransferase activity. Am J Psychiat 153: 268-270.    

17. Voelker P, Sheese BE, Rothbart MK, et al. (2009) Variations in catechol-O-methyltransferase gene interact with parenting to influence attention in early development. Neuroscience 164: 121-130.    

18. Cubells JF, van Kammen DP, Kelley ME, et al. (1998) Dopamine beta-hydroxylase: two polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium at the structural gene DBH associate with biochemical phenotypic variation. Hum Genet 102: 533-554    

19. Fjell AM, Walhovd KB, Brown TT, et al. (2012) Multimodal imaging of the self-regulating developing brain. P Natl Acad Sci USA 109: 19620-19625.    

20. Rueda MR, Fan J, McCandliss BD, et al. (2004) Development of attentional networks in childhood. Neuropsychologia 42: 1029-1040.    

21. Emery B, Lu QR (2015) Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulation of Oligodendrocyte Development and Myelination in the Central Nervous System. CSH Perspect Biol 7: a020461.2

22. Wang S, Young KM (2014) White matter plasticity in adulthood. Neuroscience 276: 148-160.    

23. Fields RD (2015) A new mechanism of nervous system plasticity: activity-dependent myelination. Nat Rev Neurosci 16: 756-767.    

24. Roffman JL, Gollub RL, Calhoun VD, et al. (2008) MTHFR 677C --> T genotype disrupts prefrontal function in schizophrenia through an interaction with COMT 158Val --> Met. P Natl Acad Sci USA 105: 17573-17578.    

25. Anderson JR, Fincham JM, Douglass S (1999) Practice and retention: a unifying analysis. J Exp Psychol Learn 25: 1120-1136.    

26. Fitts P, Posner MI (1967) Human Performance. Belmont CA: Brooks/Cole Pub Co.

27. Newell A, Rosenbloom PS (1981) Mechanisms of skill acquisition and the law of practice, in Cognitive skills and thier acquisition, Anderson JR, Ed., ed Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, pp. 1-55.

28. Heathcote A, Brown S, Mewhort DJ (2000) The power law repealed: the case for an exponential law of practice. Psychon B Rev 7: 185-207.    

29. Hull CL (1943) Principles of behavior, an introduction to behavior theory. New York: Appleton-Century Company.

30. Gompf HS, Mathai C, Fuller PM, et al. (2010) Locus ceruleus and anterior cingulate cortex sustaine wakefulness in a novel environment. J Neurosci 30: 14543-14551.    

31. Kim S, Lim IK, Park GH, et al. (1997) Biological methylation of myelin basic protein: enzymology and biological significance. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 29: 743-751.

32. Sheese BE, Rothbart MK, Voelker P, et al. (2012) The dopamine receptor D4 gene 7-repeat allele interacts with parenting quality to predict effortful control in four-year-old children. Child Dev Res 1:863242.

33. Fan J, Fossella JA, Summer T, et al. (2003) Mapping the genetic variation of executive attention onto brain activity. P Natl Acad Sci USA 100:7406-7411.    

34. Sharma A, Kramer ML, Wick PF, et al. (1999) D4 dopamine receptor-mediated phospholipid methylation and its implications for mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 4: 235-246.

35. Kuznetsova AY, Deth RC (2008) A model for modulation of neuronal synchronization by D4 dopamine receptor-mediated phospholipid methylation. J Comput Neurosci 24: 314-329.

Copyright Info: © 2016, Michael I. Posner, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved