Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Neuroenhancement of Exposure Therapy in Anxiety Disorders

Psychotherapy and Emotion Research Laboratory, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA USA

Topical Section: Neuroenhancement

Although exposure-based treatments and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Interestingly, combining these two modalities is usually not more effective than the monotherapies. Recent translational research has identified a number of novel approaches for treating anxiety disorders using agents that serve as neuroenhancers (also known as cognitive enhancers). Several of these agents have been studied to determine their efficacy at improving treatment outcome for patients with anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. In this review, we examine d-cycloserine, yohimbine, cortisol, catecholamines, oxytocin, modafinil, and nutrients such as caffeine and amino fatty acids as potential neuroenhancers. Of these agents, d-cycloserine shows the most promise as an effective neuroenhancer for extinction learning and exposure therapy. Yet, the optimal dosing and dose timing for drug administration remains uncertain. There is partial support for cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine and oxytocin for improving extinction learning and exposure therapy. There is less evidence to indicate that modafinil and nutrients such as caffeine and amino fatty acids are effective neuroenhancers. More research is needed to determine their long term efficacy and clinical utility of these agents.
  Article Metrics

Keywords neuroenhancer; cognitive enhancer; exposure therapy; extinction; d-cycloserine; cognitive behavioral therapy; anxiety disorders

Citation: Stefan G. Hofmann, Elizabeth A. Mundy, Joshua Curtiss. Neuroenhancement of Exposure Therapy in Anxiety Disorders. AIMS Neuroscience, 2015, 2(3): 123-138. doi: 10.3934/Neuroscience.2015.3.123


  • 1. Hofmann SG, Asnaani A, Vonk JJ, et al. (2012) The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive Ther Res 36: 427-440.    
  • 2. Hofmann SG, Smits JA (2008) Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry 69: 621-632.    
  • 3. Hofmann SG, Otto MW, Pollack MH, et al. (2015) D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: an Update. Curr Psychiatry Rep 17(1): 1-5.
  • 4. Hofmann SG (2008) Cognitive processes during fear acquisition and extinction in animals and humans: Implications for exposure therapy of anxiety disorders. Clin Psychol Rev 28: 199-210.    
  • 5. Singewald N, Schmuckermair C, Whittle N, et al. (2015) Pharmacology of cognitive enhancers for exposure—based therapy for fear, anxiety, and trauma-related disorder. Pharmacol Ther 149:150-190.    
  • 6. Hofmann SG, Meuret AE, Smits JA, et al. (2006) Augmentation of exposure therapy with D-cycloserine for social anxiety disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63: 298-304.    
  • 7. Smits JA, Rosenfield D, Davis ML, et al. (2014) Yohimbine enhancement of exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry 75: 840-846.    
  • 8. Davis M, Ressler K, Rothbaum BO, et al. (2006) Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction: translation from preclinical to clinical work. Biol Psychiatry 60: 369-375.    
  • 9. Richardson R, Ledgerwood L, Cranney J (2004) Facilitation of fear extinction by D-cycloserine: theoretical and clinical implications. Learn Mem 11: 510-516.    
  • 10. Bouton ME, Vurbic D, Woods AM (2008) D-cycloserine facilitates context-specific fear extinction learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem 90: 504-510.    
  • 11. Ressler KJ, Rothbaum BO, Tannenbaum L, et al. (2004) Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy: Use of D-cycloserine in phobic individuals to facilitate extinction of fear. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61: 1136-1144.    
  • 12. Otto MW, Tolin DF, Simon NM, et al. (2010) Efficacy of D-cycloserine for enhancing response to cognitive-behavior therapy for panic disorder. Biol Psychiatry 67: 365-370.    
  • 13. Hofmann SG (2014) D-cycloserine for treating anxiety disorders: making good exposures better and bad exposures worse. Depress Anxiety 31: 175-177.    
  • 14. Hofmann SG, Hüweler R, Mackillop J, et al. (2012) Effects of d-cycloserine on craving to alcohol cues in problem drinkers: Preliminary findings. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 38: 101-107.    
  • 15. Lee JL, Milton AL, Everitt BJ (2006) Reconsolidation and extinction of conditioned fear: inhibition and potentiation. J Neurosci 26: 10051-10056.    
  • 16. Hofmann SG, Smits JA, Rosenfield D, et al. (2013) D-Cycloserine as an augmentation strategy with cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder. Am J Psychiatry 170: 751-758.    
  • 17. Smits JAJ, Rosenfield D, Otto MW, et al. (2013) D-cycloserine enhancement of exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder depends on the success of exposure sessions. J Psychiat Res 47: 1455-1461.    
  • 18. Holmes A, Quirk GJ (2010) Pharmacological facilitation of fear extinction and the search for adjunct treatments for anxiety disorders—the case of yohimbine. Trends Pharmacol Sci 31: 2-7.    
  • 19. Cain CK, Blouin AM, Barad M (2004). Adrenergic transmission facilitates extinction of conditional fear in mice. Learn Mem 11: 179-187.    
  • 20. O'Carroll RE, Drysdale E, Cahill L, et al. (1999) Stimulation of the noradrenergic system enhances and blockade reduces memory for emotional material in man. Psychol Med 29: 1083-1088.    
  • 21. Powers MB, Smits JAJ, Otto MW, et al. (2009) Facilitation of fear extinction in phobic participants with a novel cognitive enhancer: A randomized placebo controlled trial of yohimbine augmentation. J Anxiety Disord 23: 350-356.    
  • 22. Lupien SJ, McEwen BS, Gunnar MR, et al. (2009) Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behavior and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci 10: 434-445.    
  • 23. De Quervain DJF, Aerni A, Schelling G, et al. (2009) Glucocorticoids and the regulation of memory in health and disease. J Epidemiol commu H 30(3): 358-370.
  • 24. Roozendaal B, McGaugh JL (1997) Glucocorticoid receptor agonist and antagonist administration into the basolateral but not central amygdala modulates memory storage, Neurobiol Learn Mem 67: 176-179.
  • 25. Lupien SJ, Fiocco A, Wan N, et al. (2005) Stress hormones and human memory function across the lifespan. Psychoneuroendocrinol 30(3): 225-242.
  • 26. Otto MW, McHugh Rk, Kantak KM (2010) Combined pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: Medication effects, glucocorticoids, and attenuated treatment outcomes. Clin Psychol 17(2): 91-103.
  • 27. Andreano JM, Cahill L (2006) Glucocorticoid release and memory consolidation in men and women. Psychol Sci 17(6): 466-470.
  • 28. Roozendaal B, Williams CL, McGaugh JL (1999) Glucocorticoid receptor activation in the rat nucleus of the solitary tract facilitates memory consolidation: Involvement of the basolateral amygdala. Eur J Neurosci 11(4): 1317-1323.
  • 29. Cai WH, Blundell J, Han J, et al. (2006) Postreactivation glucocorticoids impair recall of established fear memory. J Neurosci 26(37): 9560-9566.
  • 30. Pakdel R, Rashidy-Pour A (2007) Microinjections of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride into the medial prefrontal cortex attenuate glucocorticoid-induced impairment of long-term memory retrieval in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 87(3): 385-390.
  • 31. Barrett D, Gonzalez-Lima F (2004) Behavioral effects of metyrapone on Pavlovian extinction. Neurosci Lett 371(2-3): 91-96.
  • 32. Bohus B, Lissak K (1968) Adrenocortical hormones and avoidance behavior of rats. Int J Neuropharmacol 7(4): 301-306.
  • 33. Yang YL, Chao PK, Lu KT (2006) Systemic and intra-amygdala administration of glucocorticoid agonist and antagonist modulate extinction of conditioned fear. Neuropsychopharmacol 31(5): 912-924.
  • 34. Lass-Hennemann J, Michael T (2014) Endogenous cortisol levels influence exposure therapy in spider phobia. Behav Res Ther 60: 39-45.    
  • 35. Soravia LM, Heinrichs M, Aerni A, et al. (2006) Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(14): 5585-5590.
  • 36. Soravia LM, Heinrichs M, Winzeler L, et al. (2014) Glucocorticoids enhance in vivo exposure-based therapy if spider phobia. Depress Anxiety 31: 429-435.    
  • 37. De Quervain DJ, Bentz D, Michael T, et al. (2011) Glucocorticoids enhance extinction-based psychotherapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(16): 6621-6625.
  • 38. Meuret AE, Trueba AF, Abelson JL, et al. (2015) High cortisol awakening response and cortisol levels moderate exposure-based psychotherapy success. Psychoneuroendocrinol 51: 331-340.    
  • 39. Siegmund A, Koster L, Meves AM, et al. (2011) Stress hormones during flooding therapy and their relationship to therapy outcome in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. J Psychiatr Res 45(3): 339-346.
  • 40. Suris A, North C, Adinoff B, et al. (2010) Effects of exogenous glucocorticoid on combat-related PTSD symptoms. Ann Clin Psychiatry 22: 274-279.
  • 41. Aerni A, Traber R, Hock C, et al. (2004) Low-dose cortisol for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry 161(8): 1488-1490.
  • 42. Fries E, Hellhammer DH, Hellhammer J (2006) Attenuation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity to the Trier Social Stress Test by the benzodiazepine alprazolam. Psychoneuroendocrinol 31(10): 1278-1288.
  • 43. Pomara N, Willoughby LM, Sidtis JJ, et al. (2005) Cortisol response to diazepam: Its relationship to age, dose, duration of treatment, and presence of generalized anxiety disorder. Psychopharmacol 178(1): 1-8.
  • 44. Brown RM, Crane AM, Goldman PS (1979) Regional distribution of monoamines in the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures of rhesus monkey: concentrations and in vivo synthesis. Brain Res 168: 133-150.    
  • 45. Goldman-Rakic PS (1991) Prefrontal cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia: the relevance of working memory. In: Psychopathology and the Brain, edited by B. Carroll, New York: Raven, 1-23.
  • 46. Sawaguchi T, Goldman-Rakic PS (1994) The role of D1-dopamine receptor in working memory: Local injections of dopamine antagonists into the prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkeys performing an oculomotor delayed-response task. J Neurophysiol 71(2): 515-528.
  • 47. Seamans JK, Yang CR (2004) The principal features and mechanisms of dopamine modulation in the prefrontal cortex. Prog Neurobiol 74(1): 1-58.
  • 48. Bromberg-Martin ES, Matsumoto M, Hikosaka O (2010) Dopamine in motivational control: rewarding, aversive, and alerting. Neuron 68(5): 815-834.
  • 49. Nikolaus S, Antke C, Beu M, et al. (2010) Cortical GABA, striatal dopamine and midbrain serotonin as the key players in compulsive and anxiety disorders: Results from in vivo imaging studies. Rev Neurosci 21(2): 119-139.
  • 50. Olver JS, O'Keefe G, Jones GR, et al. (2009) Dopamine D1 receptor binding in the striatum of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Affect Disord 114(1-3): 321-326.
  • 51. De la Mora MP, Gallegos-Cari A, Arizmendi-Garcia Y, et al. (2010) Role of dopamine receptor mechanisms in the amygdaloid modulation of fear and anxiety: Structural and functional analysis. Prog Neurobiol 90(2): 198-216.
  • 52. Koo MS, Kim EJ, Roh D, et al. (2010) Role of dopamine in the pathophysiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Expert Rev Neurother 10(2): 275-290.
  • 53. Insel TR (2010) The challenge of translation in social neuroscience: A review of oxytocin, vasopressin, and affiliative behavior. Neuron 65(6): 768-779.
  • 54. Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, et al. (2005) Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nat 435(7042): 673-676.
  • 55. Meyer-Lindenberg A, Domes G, Kirsch P, et al. (2011). Oxytocin and vasopressin in the human brain: Social neuropeptides for translational medicine. Nat Rev Neurosci 12(9): 524-538.    
  • 56. Frith CD (2008) Social Cognition. Philos Trans R Soc Biol Sci, 363: 2033-2039.    
  • 57. Eisenberg N, Miller PA (1987) The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors. Psycholog Bull, 101: 91-119.    
  • 58. Perez-Rodriguez MM, Mahon K, Russo M, et al. (2015) Oxytocin and social cognition in affective and psychotic disorders. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 25: 265-282.    
  • 59. Zak PJ, Kurzban R & Matzner WT (2005) Oxytocin is associated with human trustworthiness. Horm Behav 48(5): 522-527.
  • 60. Grewen KM, Girdler SS, Amico J, et al. (2005) Effects of partner support on resting oxytocin, cortisol, norepinephrine, and blood pressure before and after warm partner contact. Psychosom Med 67(4): 531-538.
  • 61. Scantamburlo G, Hansenne M, Fuchs S, et al. (2007). Plasma oxytocin levels and anxiety in patients with major depression. Psychoneuroendocrinol 32(4): 407-410.
  • 62. Goldman M, Marlow-O'Connor M, Torres I, et al. (2008) Diminished plasma oxytocin in schizophrenic patients with neuroendocrine dysfunction and emotional deficits. Schizophr Res 98(1-3): 247-255.
  • 63. Green L, Fein D, Modahl C, et al. (2001) Oxytocin and autistic disorder: Alterations in peptide forms. Biol Psychiatry 50(8): 609-613.
  • 64. Cyranowski JM, Hofkens TL, Frank E, et al. (2008) Evidence of dysregulated peripheral oxytocin release among depressed women. Psychosom Med 70(9): 967-975.
  • 65. Taylor SE, Gonzaga GC, Klein LC, et al. (2006) Relation of oxytocin to psychological stress responses and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in older women. Psychosom Med 68(2): 238-245.
  • 66. Hoge EA, Pollack MH, Kaufman RE, et al. (2008) Oxytocin levels in social anxiety disorder. CNS Neurosci Ther 14(3): 165-170.
  • 67. Born J, Lange T, Kern W, et al. (2002) Sniffing neuropeptides: A transnasal approach to the human brain. Nat Neurosci 5(6): 514-516.
  • 68. Mikolajczak M, Gross JJ, Lane A, et al. (2010) Oxytocin makes people trusting, not gullible. Psychol Sci 21(8): 1072-1074.
  • 69. Mikolajczak M, Pinon N, Lane A, et al. (2010) Oxytocin not only increases trust when money is at stake, but also when confidential information is in the balance. Biol Psychol 85(1): 182-184.
  • 70. Baumgartner T, Heinrichs M, Vonlanthen A, et al. (2008) Oxytocin shapes the neural circuitry of trust and trust adaptation in humans. Neuron 58(4): 639-650.
  • 71. Hofmann S G, Fang A, Brager D N (in press). Effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on psychiatric symptoms: A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies.Psychiatry Res.
  • 72. Guastella AJ, Howard AL, Dadds MR, et al. (2009) A randomized controlled trial of intranasal oxytocin as an adjunct to exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinol 34(6): 917-923.
  • 73. MacDonald E, Dadds MR, Brennan JL, et al. (2011) A review of safety, side-effects and subjective reactions to intranasal oxytocin in human research. Psychoneuroendocrinol 36(8): 1114-1126.
  • 74. Labuschagne I, Phan KL, Wood A, et al. (2010) Oxytocin attenuates amygdala reactivity to fear in generalized social anxiety disorder. Neuropsychopharmacol 35(12): 2403-2413.
  • 75. Labuschagne I, Phan KL, Wood A, et al. (2012) Medial frontal hyperactivity to sad faces in generalized social anxiety disorder and modulation by oxytocin. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 15: 883-896.    
  • 76. Fang A, Hoge E A, Heinrichs M, et al. (2014) Attachment Style Moderates the Effects of Oxytocin on Social Behaviors and Cognitions During Social Rejection: Applying an RDoC Framework to Social Anxiety. Clin Psychol Sci 2 (6):740-747.
  • 77. Minzenberg MJ, Carter CS (2008) Modafinil: A review of neurochemical actions and effects on cognition. Neuropsychopharmacol 33(7): 1477-1502.
  • 78. Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Logan J, et al. (2009) Effects of modafinil on dopamine and dopamine transporters in the male human brain: clinical implications. JAMA 301(11): 1148-1154.
  • 79. Madras BK, Xie Z, Lin Z, et al. (2006) Modafinil occupies dopamine and norepinephrine transporters in vivo and modulates the transporters and trace amine activity in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319: 561-569.    
  • 80. Hermant JF, Rambert FA, Duteil J (1991) Awakening properties of modafinil: Effect on nocturnal activity in monkeys (Macacamulatta) after acute and repeated administration. Psychopharmacol 103(1): 28-32.
  • 81. Kahbazi M, Ghoreishi A, Rahiminejad F, et al. (2009) A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial of modafinil in children and adolescents with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Res 168(3): 234-237.
  • 82. Randall DC, Shneerson JM, Plaha KK, et al. (2003) Modafinil affects mood, but not cognitive function, in healthy young volunteers. Hum Psychopharmacol 18(3): 163-173.
  • 83. Wong YN, King SP, Simcoe D, et al. (1999) Open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study of modafinil tablets: Influence of age and gender in normal subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 39(3): 281-288.
  • 84. Murphy HM, Ekstrand D, Tarchick M, et al. (2015) Modafinil as a cognitive enhancer of spatial working memory in rats. Physiol Behav 142: 126-130.    
  • 85. Rasetti R, Mattay VS, Stankevich B, et al. (2010) Modulatory effects of modafinil on neural circuits regulating emotion and cognition. Neuropsychopharmacol 35(10): 2101-2109.
  • 86. Schwartz JR, Hirshkowitz M, Erman MK, et al. (2003) Modafinil as adjunct therapy for daytime sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea: a 12-week, open-label study. Chest 124(6): 2192-2199.
  • 87. Zifko UA, Rupp M, Schwarz S, et al. (2002) Modafinil in treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Results of an open-label study. J Neurol 249(8): 983-987.
  • 88. Balanza-Martinez V, Fries GR, Colpo GD, et al. (2011) Therapeutic use of omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder. Expert Rev Neurotherapeutics 11: 1029-1047.    
  • 89. Bloch MH, Qawasmi A (2011) Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50: 991-1000.    
  • 90. Cosci F, Abrams K, Schruers KRJ, et al. (2006) Effect of nicotine on 35% CO2-induced anxiety: A study in healthy volunteers. Nicotine Tob Res 8, 511-517.
  • 91. Gertsik L, Poland RE, Bresee C, et al. (2012) Omega-3 fatty acid augmentation of citalopram treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 32: 61-64.    
  • 92. Lesperance FO, Frasure-Smith N, St-Andre E, et al. (2011) The efficacy of omega-3 supplementation for major depression: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 72: 1054-1062.    
  • 93. Masdrakis VG, Papakostas YG, Vaidakis N, et al. (2008) Caffeine challenge in patients with panic disorder: Baseline differences between those who panic and those who do not. Depress Anxiety 25, E72-E79.
  • 94. Mystkowski JL, Mineka S, Vernon LL, et al. (2003) Changes in caffeine states enhance return of fear in spider phobia. J Consult Clin Psychol 71: 243-250.    
  • 95. Salin-Pascual RJ, Basanez-Villa E (2003) Changes in compulsion and anxiety symptoms with nicotine transdermal patches in non-smoking obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. Revista de Investigacion Clinica 55: 650-654.
  • 96. Culver NC, Vervliet B, Craske MG (2014). Compound Extinction Using the Rescorla–Wagner Model to Maximize Exposure Therapy Effects for Anxiety Disorders. Clin Psychol Sci 2167702614542103.
  • 97. McNamara RK, Carlson SE (2006) Role of omega-3 fatty acids in brain development and function: potential implications for the pathogenesis and prevention of psychopathology. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 75: 329-349.    
  • 98. Timonen M, Horrobin D, Jokelainen J, et al. (2004) Fish consumption and depression: The Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort study. J Affective Disord 82: 447-452.
  • 99. McNamara RK (2011) Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency: A preventable risk factor for schizophrenia? Schizophr Res 129: 215-216.    
  • 100. Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Korte KJ, et al. (2009) Is it beneficial to add pharmacotherapy to cognitive-behavioral therapy when treating anxiety disorders? A meta-analytic review. Int J Cogn Ther 2: 160-175.


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Ion-George Anghelescu, Darauf müssen Sie achten, wenn die offizielle Indikation fehlt, DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater, 2016, 17, 4, 34, 10.1007/s15202-016-1246-6
  • 2. Annette B. Brühl, Barbara J. Sahakian, Drugs, games, and devices for enhancing cognition: implications for work and society, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2016, n/a, 10.1111/nyas.13040
  • 3. Joshua Curtiss, Leigh Andrews, Michelle Davis, Jasper Smits, Stefan G. Hofmann, A meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder: an examination of efficacy, moderators, and mediators, Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 2017, 1, 10.1080/14656566.2017.1285907
  • 4. Jenni Leppanen, Valentina Cardi, Kah Wee Ng, Yannis Paloyelis, Daniel Stein, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure, The effects of intranasal oxytocin on smoothie intake, cortisol and attentional bias in anorexia nervosa, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2017, 79, 167, 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.01.017
  • 5. Sarah Ly, Nirinjini Naidoo, Neuroenhancement and the Developing Brain: Commentary on the AIMS Neuroscience Special Issue on “Neuroenhancers”, AIMS Neuroscience, 2015, 2, 4, 229, 10.3934/Neuroscience.2015.4.229
  • 6. Verônica Tironi Dias, Luciana Taschetto Vey, Higor Zuquetto Rosa, Lívia Ferraz D'avila, Raquel Cristine Silva Barcelos, Marilise Escobar Burger, Could Modafinil Prevent Psychostimulant Addiction? An Experimental Study in Rats, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 2017, 10.1111/bcpt.12821
  • 7. I. Anghelescu, O. Benkert, , Kompendium der Psychiatrischen Pharmakotherapie, 2017, Chapter 4, 479, 10.1007/978-3-662-50333-1_4
  • 8. Paul M. Lehrer, Heart rate variability biofeedback and other psychophysiological procedures as important elements in psychotherapy, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 2017, 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2017.09.012
  • 9. Thomas Beblo, Sarah Pelster, Christine Schilling, Kristian Kleinke, Benjamin Iffland, Martin Driessen, Silvia Fernando, Breath Versus Emotions: The Impact of Different Foci of Attention During Mindfulness Meditation on the Experience of Negative and Positive Emotions, Behavior Therapy, 2017, 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.006
  • 10. Tanja Michael, Johanna Lass-Hennemann, Anke Ehlers, , Lehrbuch der Verhaltenstherapie, Band 1, 2018, Chapter 5, 85, 10.1007/978-3-662-54911-7_5
  • 11. Johanna Lass-Hennemann, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Tanja Michael, , Lehrbuch der Verhaltenstherapie, Band 1, 2018, Chapter 28, 411, 10.1007/978-3-662-54911-7_28
  • 12. K. Meyerbröker, N. Morina, P.M.G. Emmelkamp, Enhancement of exposure therapy in participants with specific phobia: a randomized controlled trial comparing yohimbine, propranolol and placebo, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2018, 10.1016/j.janxdis.2018.05.001
  • 13. Jonathan Starke, Naomi Fineberg, Dan Stein, , Advances in Psychiatry, 2019, Chapter 2, 33, 10.1007/978-3-319-70554-5_2
  • 14. Ovsanna Leyfer, Aubrey Carpenter, Donna Pincus, N-methyl-d-aspartate Partial Agonist Enhanced Intensive Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder in Adolescents, Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 2018, 10.1007/s10578-018-0837-1
  • 15. Shira Meir Drexler, Christian J. Merz, Valerie L. Jentsch, Oliver T. Wolf, How stress and glucocorticoids timing-dependently affect extinction and relapse, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2018, 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.12.029
  • 16. Dan J. Stein, Willie Daniels, Brian H. Harvey, , Translational Medicine in CNS Drug Development, 2019, 375, 10.1016/B978-0-12-803161-2.00026-6
  • 17. Christopher J. Fitzpatrick, Trevor Geary, Justin F. Creeden, Jonathan D. Morrow, Sign-tracking behavior is difficult to extinguish and resistant to multiple cognitive enhancers, Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 2019, 163, 107045, 10.1016/j.nlm.2019.107045
  • 18. O. S. Levin, A. S. Chimagomedova, A. P. Arefieva, Anxiety in the elderly, Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova, 2019, 119, 6, 113, 10.17116/jnevro2019119061113
  • 19. Toshiro Sakamoto, Shogo Sugimoto, Tomoko Uekita, Effects of intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections of oxytocin on social and emotional behaviors in pubertal male mice, Physiology & Behavior, 2019, 112701, 10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112701

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2015, Stefan G. Hofmann, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved