Research article

Electro-thermal modelling and Tj estimation of wire-bonded IGBT power module with multi-chip switches subject to wire-bond lift-off

  • Received: 01 January 2020 Accepted: 04 March 2020 Published: 19 March 2020
  • Wire-bonded multi-chip IGBT power modules constitute the heart of high-current power electronic motor drives. The most common failure mechanism is the degradation of the top-side wires. This deterioration impacts the electrical path and the individual dies’ temperature. The temperature is thus not only a stressor, but also a failure precursor. It is thus typically sensed in health monitoring methods based on damage-accumulation-models and failure precursors. One way to estimate the temperature is through the on-state voltage at low load current as a temperature sensitive electrical parameter. The on-state voltage being sensitive to the quality of the top-side connection, the obtained temperature estimate is drifting with degradation. This drift typically leads to under-estimating the temperature, thus reducing the precision of health monitoring. Drift compensation methods based on re-calibration are effective in single-chip switches, but their performances are not viable in multi-chip switches. This is due to the different temperature and current conditions during the calibration and the estimation phases. This paper addresses the relation between wire-bond degradation and temperature in multi-chip switches and proposes a simple model to explain and reproduce the electro-thermal behaviours. The model is based on experimental results where the degradation of wire-bonds is reproduced by cutting the wires sequentially. The model is further used to explain the drift in temperature estimation and the performance of the drift compensation methods based on re-calibration. Overall, the paper provides new results and understandings of the thermo-electrical behaviour of multi-chip power IGBT modules subject to wear-out.

    Citation: Nicolas Degrenne, Romain Delamea, Stefan Mollov. Electro-thermal modelling and Tj estimation of wire-bonded IGBT power module with multi-chip switches subject to wire-bond lift-off[J]. AIMS Electronics and Electrical Engineering, 2020, 4(2): 154-168. doi: 10.3934/ElectrEng.2020.2.154

    Related Papers:

  • Wire-bonded multi-chip IGBT power modules constitute the heart of high-current power electronic motor drives. The most common failure mechanism is the degradation of the top-side wires. This deterioration impacts the electrical path and the individual dies’ temperature. The temperature is thus not only a stressor, but also a failure precursor. It is thus typically sensed in health monitoring methods based on damage-accumulation-models and failure precursors. One way to estimate the temperature is through the on-state voltage at low load current as a temperature sensitive electrical parameter. The on-state voltage being sensitive to the quality of the top-side connection, the obtained temperature estimate is drifting with degradation. This drift typically leads to under-estimating the temperature, thus reducing the precision of health monitoring. Drift compensation methods based on re-calibration are effective in single-chip switches, but their performances are not viable in multi-chip switches. This is due to the different temperature and current conditions during the calibration and the estimation phases. This paper addresses the relation between wire-bond degradation and temperature in multi-chip switches and proposes a simple model to explain and reproduce the electro-thermal behaviours. The model is based on experimental results where the degradation of wire-bonds is reproduced by cutting the wires sequentially. The model is further used to explain the drift in temperature estimation and the performance of the drift compensation methods based on re-calibration. Overall, the paper provides new results and understandings of the thermo-electrical behaviour of multi-chip power IGBT modules subject to wear-out.
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    [1] Bryant A, Yang S, Mawby P, et al. (2011) Investigation Into IGBT dV/dt During Turn-Off and Its Temperature Dependence. IEEE T Power Electr 26: 3019-3031. doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2011.2125803
    [2] Lutz J, Schlangenotto H, Scheuermann U, et al. (2011) Semiconductor power devices: Physics, characteristics, reliability. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
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    [4] Degrenne N, Ewanchuk J, David E, et al. (2015) A review of prognostics and health management for power semiconductor modules. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, PHM.
    [5] Piton M, Chauchat B, Servière JF (2018) Implementation of direct Chip junction temperature measurement in high power IGBT module in operation-Railway traction converter. Microelectron Reliab 88: 1305-1310.
    [6] Avenas Y, Dupont L, Khatir Z (2012) Temperature Measurement of Power Semiconductor Devices by Thermo-Sensitive Electrical Parameters-A Review. IEEE T Power Electr 27: 3081-3092. doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2011.2178433
    [7] Brandelero J, Ewanchuk J, Degrenne N, et al. (2018) Lifetime extension through Tj equalisation by use of intelligent gate driver with multi-chip power module. Microelectron Reliab 88: 428-432.
    [8] Degrenne N, Mollov S (2019) Robust On-line Junction Temperature Estimation of IGBT Power Modules based on Von during PWM Power Cycling. 2019 IEEE International Workshop on Integrated Power Packaging (IWIPP).
    [9] Degrenne N, Mollov S (2018) On-line Health Monitoring of Wire-Bonded IGBT Power Modules using On-State Voltage at Zero-Temperature-Coefficient. In PCIM 2018.

    © 2020 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)
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