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The relationship between mold sensitization and allergic diseases: a retrospective study (Jeddah, Saudi)

Family Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Background: fungi are a common trigger of allergic diseases. Inspite of that fungal clinical allergies are underdiagnosed. In Saudi, fungi are a common indoor triggers. Objective: to determine allergic diseases associated with mold sensitization (MS) in Jeddah-Saudi. Methods: a retrospective study between period of (March 2016 to March 2017). Sample size is 51 patients with positive MS. Data was extracted by medical students from Laluna private clinic in Jeddah, Saudi. Test panel used was 30 RAST sIgE in vitro inhalant allergens (MEDIWISS Analytic GmbH company). This panel contain the most common inhalant allergens in Saudi. Each allergen is separate with severity scores from zero to 6. Allergic diseases diagnosis (and any other clinical diagnosis) was extracted from the same files. Results were collected in excel sheet in several columns: demographic data, allergic diseases, common molds in Saudi and other positive inhalants sensitization. Results: sample is 51 patients with MS. Gender distribution: females 28 (55%), males 23 (45%). Most common MSs are: aspergillus fumigatus 35 (69%), alternaria 32 (63%), 29 (57%), candida 13 (25%) and penicillium 9 (18%). Allergic diseases associated with MS are: allergic rhinitis and allergic fungal sinusitis 23 (45%), asthma 14 (27%), urticaria and angioedema 11 (22%) and atopic dermatitis (AD) 10 (20%). Other disease associated with MS are: hypothyroidism, obesity and facial pigmentations. Conclusion: Unfortunately, mold allergic diseases are underdiagnosed inspite of its high prevalence. In Jeddah, Saudi, the commonest MSs are: aspergillus fumigatus, alternaria followed by cladosporium, candida. Most common diseases associated with MSs are: respiratory allergic diseases (allergic rhinitis, allergic fungal sinusitis, asthma) followed by skin allergic diseases (urticaria, angioedema and AD). MSs are of mild class severity, however clinical allergic diseases due to mold are sever. This mean that sensitization class level don’t reflect the clinical severity.
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