Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

The Impact and Feasibility of Introducing Height-Adjustable Desks on Adolescents’ Sitting in a Secondary School Classroom

1 Deakin University, Geelong, Australia, Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
2 Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
3 School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston Road, Herston, Brisbane, QLD 4006, Australia
4 Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Malvern East, VIC, Australia
5 School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia
6 Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, The Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
7 The Australian Council for Health and Physical Education, South Australian Branch, SA, Australia
8 The Australian Council for Health and Physical Education, Victorian Branch, SA, Australia

Special Issues: Advances in sedentary behavior research and translation

Children spend over 60% of their school day sitting; much of this occurs in the classroom. Emerging research has examined the impact of environmental interventions on classroom sitting. While this research is promising, it has predominantly focused on the primary school setting. This study examined the impact and feasibility of height-adjustable desks on time spent sitting/standing during classroom lessons in a secondary school. Traditional desks in a Melbourne secondary school classroom were replaced with 27 height-adjustable desks (intervention classroom). Forty-three adolescents (51% male; mean age 13.7 ± 1.4 years) from Grades 7, 9 and 10 wore an inclinometer and accelerometer for schooldays and completed a survey after using the desks during lessons for seven weeks. Ten teachers (50% male) completed a survey. Time spent sitting, standing, and the length of sitting bouts were compared between periods when adolescents were in the intervention classroom versus traditional classrooms (matched on teacher and subject). Compared to the traditional classroom, adolescents spent 25% less time sitting and 24% more time standing in the intervention classroom (effect size > 0.8), and had a greater frequency of short sitting bouts and fewer longer bouts. The majority of teachers (71%) and students (70%) reported wanting to continue to use the height-adjustable desks. When standing during lessons, adolescents reported working well (69%); however, a third reported difficulties paying attention (28%) and becoming distracted (36%). Few teachers reported negative influences on adolescents’ ability to work (14%) and concentrate (14%). Half the adolescents reported leg, or back pain with standing. Introducing height-adjustable desks resulted in lower levels of sitting compared with traditional classrooms, was acceptable and had some adverse effects on concentration and discomfort. The study provides preliminary evidence that height-adjustable desks may help reduce prolonged sitting in school among adolescents. Future research should incorporate a control group and explore behavioural and academic outcomes.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords activPAL; ActiGraph; sedentary behaviour; classroom sitting; adolescents; school

Citation: Bronwyn Sudholz, Anna Timperio, Nicola D. Ridgers, David W. Dunstan, Rick Baldock, Bernie Holland, Jo Salmon. The Impact and Feasibility of Introducing Height-Adjustable Desks on Adolescents’ Sitting in a Secondary School Classroom. AIMS Public Health , 2016, 3(2): 274-287. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2016.2.274

References

  • 1. Sedentary Behaviour Research Network. (2012) Letter to the Editor: Standardized use of the terms “sedentary” and “sedentary behaviours”. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 37: 540-542.    
  • 2. Marshall SJ, Biddle SJ, Gorely T, et al. (2004) Relationships between media use, body fatness and physical activity in children and youth: a meta-analysis. Int J Obes 28: 1238-1246.    
  • 3. Salmon J, Tremblay MS, Marshall SJ, et al. (2011) Health risks, correlates, and interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in young people. Am J Prev Med 41: 197-206.    
  • 4. Tremblay MS, LeBlanc AG, Kho ME, et al. (2011) Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 8: 2-22.
  • 5. Gabel L, Ridgers N, Della Gatta P, et al. (2015) Associations of sedentary time patterns and TV viewing time with inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers in children. Pediatr Obes: 1-8.
  • 6. Mitchell JA, Byun W (2014) Sedentary behavior and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Am J Lifestyle Med 8: 173-199.    
  • 7. Biddle SJ, Pearson N, Ross GM, et al. (2010) Tracking of sedentary behaviours of young people: a systematic review. Prev Med 51: 345-351.    
  • 8. Ekelund U, Brage S, Froberg K, et al. (2006) TV viewing and physical activity are independently associated with metabolic risk in children: the European Youth Heart Study. PLoS Med 3: 2449-2457.
  • 9. Dunstan D, Barr E, Healy G, et al. (2010) Television viewing time and mortality the australian diabetes, obesity and lifestyle study (AusDiab). Circulation 121: 384-391.    
  • 10. Bull F, The Expert Working Groups: Physical activity guidelines in the United Kingdom: Review and recommendations, Leicestershire, United Kingdom. School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, 2010.
  • 11. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report, Washington, DC: U.S. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, committee PAGA, 2008.
  • 12. Tremblay MS, Warburton DE, Janssen I, et al. (2011) New Canadian physical activity guidelines. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 36: 36-46.    
  • 13. Australian Goverment Department of Health. Australia’s Physical Activity & Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Young People (13–17 years). Canberra, ACT: Australia. Australian Goverment Department of Health, physical activity advisory committee, 2014.
  • 14. Ridgers ND, Salmon J, Ridley K, et al. (2012) Agreement between activPAL and ActiGraph for assessing children’s sedentary time. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9: 1-8.    
  • 15. Clemes SA, Barber SE, Bingham DD, et al. (2015) Reducing children's classroom sitting time using sit-to-stand desks: findings from pilot studies in UK and Australian primary schools. J Public Health: 1-8.
  • 16. Matthews CE, Chen KY, Freedson PS, et al. (2008) Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in the United States, 2003–2004. Am J Epidemiol 167: 875-881.    
  • 17. Dowd K, Harrington D, Bourke A, et al. (2012). The measurement of sedentary patterns and behaviors using the activPAL™ Professional physical activity monitor. Physiol Meas 33: 1887.
  • 18. Harrington D, Dowd K, Bourke A, et al. (2011). Cross-sectional analysis of levels and patterns of objectively measured sedentary time in adolescent females. Int J Behav Phys Act: 8: 2-7.    
  • 19. Hinckson E, Salmon J, Benden M, et al. (2015) Standing Classrooms: Research and lessons learned from around the world. Sports Med: 1-11.
  • 20. Minges KE, Chao AM, Irwin ML, et al. (2016) Classroom Standing Desks and Sedentary Behavior: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics: peds. 2015-3087.
  • 21. Torbeyns T, Bailey S, Bos I, et al. (2014) Active workstations to fight sedentary behaviour. Sports Med 44: 1261-1273.    
  • 22. Aminian S, Hinckson E, Stewart T. (2015) Modifying the classroom enviroment to increase standing and reducing sitting. Building Research & Informtaion: 1-15.
  • 23. Dornhecker M, Blake JJ, Benden M, et al. (2015) The effect of stand-biased desks on academic engagement: An exploratory study. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education: 1-10.
  • 24. Benden ME, Blake JJ, Wendel ML, et al. (2011) The impact of stand-biased desks in classrooms on calorie expenditure in children. Am J Public Health 101: 1433-1436.    
  • 25. Benden ME, Wendel ML, Jeffrey CE, et al. (2012) Within-subjects analysis of the effects of a stand-biased classroom intervention on energy expenditure. J Exerc Physiol Online 15: 9-19.
  • 26. Benden ME, Zhao H, Jeffrey CE, et al. (2014) The evaluation of the impact of a stand-biased desk on energy expenditure and physical activity for elementary school students. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11: 9361-9375.    
  • 27. Koskelo R, Vuorikari K, Hänninen O. (2007) Sitting and standing postures are corrected by adjustable furniture with lowered muscle tension in high-school students. Ergonomics 50: 1643-1656.    
  • 28. Benden M, Pickens A, Shipp E, et al. (2013) Evaluating a school based childhood obesity intervention for posture and comfort. Health 5: 54-60.
  • 29. Koepp GA, Snedden BJ, Flynn L, et al. (2012) Feasibility analysis of standing desks for sixth graders. ICAN: Infant, Child, & Adolescent Nutrition 4: 89-92.
  • 30. Blake JJ, Benden ME, Wendel ML. (2012) Using stand/sit workstations in classrooms: Lessons learned from a pilot study in Texas. J Public Health Manag Pract 18: 412-415.    
  • 31. Mehta RK, Shortz AE, Benden ME. (2015) Standing up for learning: A pilot investigation on the neurocognitive benefits of stand-biased school desks. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13: 2-10.    
  • 32. Aminian S, Hinckson EA. (2012) Examining the validity of the ActivPAL monitor in measuring posture and ambulatory movement in children. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9: 1-9.    
  • 33. Evenson KR, Terry Jr JW. (2009) Assessment of differing definitions of accelerometer nonwear time. Res Q Exerc Sport 80: 355-362.    
  • 34. Freedson PS, Melanson E, Sirard J. (1998) Calibration of the Computer Science and Applications, Inc. accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30: 777-781.    
  • 35. Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, et al. (2008) Breaks in sedentary time beneficial associations with metabolic risk. Diabetes Care 31: 661-666.    
  • 36. Hnatiuk J, Ridgers ND, Salmon J, et al. (2012) Physical activity levels and patterns of 19-month-old children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44: 1715-1720.    
  • 37. Borenstein M, Cooper H. (2009) Effect sizes for continuous data, In: Cooper H, Hedges L, Valentine J, The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis, 2 Eds., United States of America: The Russell Sage Foundation, 221-235.
  • 38. Hinckson EA, Aminian S, Ikeda E, et al. (2013) Acceptability of standing workstations in elementary schools: a pilot study. Prev Med 56: 82-85.    
  • 39. Dunstan DW, Kingwell BA, Larsen R, et al. (2012) Breaking up prolonged sitting reduces postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Diabetes Care 35: 976-983.    
  • 40. Healy GN, Matthews CE, Dunstan DW, et al. (2011) Sedentary time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in US adults: NHANES 2003–06. Eur Heart J: 2-8.
  • 41. Messing K, Stock S, Côté J, et al. (2015) Is sitting worse than static standing? How a gender analysis can move us toward understanding determinants and effects of occupational standing and walking. J Occup Environ Hyg 12: 11-17.
  • 42. Goodman A, Mackett RL, Paskins J. (2011) Activity compensation and activity synergy in British 8–13year olds. Prev Med 53: 293-298.    
  • 43. Mansoubi M, Pearson N, Biddle S, et al. (2015) Using Sit-to-Stand Workstations in Offices: Is There a Compensation Effect? Med Sci Sports Exerc: 3-25.
  • 44. Lyden K, Kozey-Keadle SL, Staudenmayer JW, et al. (2012) Validity of two wearable monitors to estimate breaks from sedentary time. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44: 2243-2251.    

 

This article has been cited by

  • 1. Ana Contardo Ayala, Jo Salmon, Anna Timperio, Bronwyn Sudholz, Nicola Ridgers, Parneet Sethi, David Dunstan, Impact of an 8-Month Trial Using Height-Adjustable Desks on Children’s Classroom Sitting Patterns and Markers of Cardio-Metabolic and Musculoskeletal Health, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2016, 13, 12, 1227, 10.3390/ijerph13121227
  • 2. Stuart J.H. Biddle, Jason Bennie, Editorial for Special Issue: Advances in Sedentary Behavior Research and Translation, AIMS Public Health, 2017, 4, 1, 33, 10.3934/publichealth.2017.1.33
  • 3. Anne-Maree Parrish, Stewart G. Trost, Steven J. Howard, Marijka Batterham, Dylan Cliff, Jo Salmon, Anthony D. Okely, Evaluation of an intervention to reduce adolescent sitting time during the school day: The ‘Stand Up for Health’ randomised controlled trial, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2018, 10.1016/j.jsams.2018.05.020
  • 4. Ana María Contardo Ayala, Bronwyn Sudholz, Jo Salmon, David W. Dunstan, Nicola D. Ridgers, Lauren Arundell, Anna Timperio, Hajo Zeeb, The impact of height-adjustable desks and prompts to break-up classroom sitting on adolescents' energy expenditure, adiposity markers and perceived musculoskeletal discomfort, PLOS ONE, 2018, 13, 9, e0203938, 10.1371/journal.pone.0203938
  • 5. Maïté Verloigne, Nicola D Ridgers, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Greet Cardon, Effect and process evaluation of implementing standing desks in primary and secondary schools in Belgium: a cluster-randomised controlled trial, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2018, 15, 1, 10.1186/s12966-018-0726-9
  • 6. Lauren Arundell, Jo Salmon, Jenny Veitch, Anna Timperio, The Relationship between Objectively Measured and Self-Reported Sedentary Behaviours and Social Connectedness among Adolescents, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019, 16, 2, 277, 10.3390/ijerph16020277
  • 7. Tetsuhiro Kidokoro, Yasuo Shimizu, Kanako Edamoto, Michael Annear, Classroom Standing Desks and Time-Series Variation in Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity among Primary School Children, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019, 16, 11, 1892, 10.3390/ijerph16111892
  • 8. Bruno P. Moura, Rogério L. Rufino, Ricardo C. Faria, Jeffer E. Sasaki, Paulo Roberto S. Amorim, Can Replacing Sitting Time with Standing Time Improve Adolescents’ Cardiometabolic Health?, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019, 16, 17, 3115, 10.3390/ijerph16173115
  • 9. Erica Hinckson, Jo Salmon, Mark Benden, Stacey A. Clemes, Bronwyn Sudholz, Sally E. Barber, Saeideh Aminian, Nicola D. Ridgers, Standing Classrooms: Research and Lessons Learned from Around the World, Sports Medicine, 2016, 46, 7, 977, 10.1007/s40279-015-0436-2

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2016, Jo Salmon, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved