Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Epidemiological, Clinical and Entomological Characteristics of Yellow Fever Outbreak in Darfur 2012

1 Federal Ministry of Health, Public Health Institute & Epidemiology Department, Sudan;
2 Federal Ministry of Health, Epidemiology Department, Sudan;
3 Albaha University, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Saudi Arabia

The study aims at analyzing the epidemiological, clinical and entomological characteristics of Darfur yellow fever epidemic. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. According to operational case definition, suspected yellow fever cases are included in case spread sheet with variables like age, sex, locality, occupation, status of vaccination, onset of symptoms, presenting symptoms, date of blood sampling and confirmation of diagnosis either by laboratory results or epidemiological link. Data about important entomological indices were collected by surveys conducted in 17 localities of 3 Darfur states (Central, West and south Darfur). All Darfur states (especially Central Darfur) have been affected by Yellow Fever outbreak. There is a need to review the non-specific case definition of Yellow Fever which seems to overwhelm the system during outbreaks with cases of other endemic diseases. The significant risk factors of this outbreak included male sex, adult age, outdoor occupation and traditional mining. The fatality rate was significantly associated with vaccination status. The highest fatality rate was recorded by children less than 2 years old (42.9%). Generally, increase in certain entomological indices was followed by increase in number of reported cases 7 days later. Central Darfur state was significantly higher in most studied entomological indices.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords Yellow Fever; outbreak, epidemiology; entomology

Citation: Hamdi Abdulwahab Alhakimi, Omima Gadalla Mohamed, Hayat Salah Eldin Khogaly, Khalid Ahmad Omar Arafa, Waled Amen Ahmed. Epidemiological, Clinical and Entomological Characteristics of Yellow Fever Outbreak in Darfur 2012. AIMS Public Health , 2015, 2(1): 132-141. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2015.1.132

References

  • 1. Mutebi J-P, Barrett AD (2002) The epidemiology of yellow fever in Africa. Microbes infect 4:1459-1468.    
  • 2. Monath TP (2005) Yellow fever. Medicine 33: 21-23.    
  • 3. Barnett ED (2007) Yellow fever: epidemiology and prevention. Clin Infect Dis 44: 850-856.    
  • 4. Soghaier MA, Hagar A, Abbas MA, et al. (2013) Yellow Fever outbreak in Darfur, Sudan in October 2012|the initial outbreak investigation report. J Infect Public Health 6: 370-376.    
  • 5. Yuill TM, Woodall JP, Baekeland S (2013) Latest outbreak news from ProMED-mail. Yellow fever outbreak—Darfur Sudan and Chad. Int J Infect Dis 17: e476-e478.
  • 6. Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2012) The total population expected to states for the period 2009–2018. Khartoum. Available from: http://www.cbs.gov.sd/en/files.php?id=7#&panel1-3.
  • 7. World Health Organization (2003) WHO-recommended standards for surveillance of selected vaccine preventable diseases.
  • 8. Scott TW, Morrison AC, Takken W (2003) Aedes aegypti density and the risk of dengue virus transmission. Ecological aspects for application of genetically modified mosquitoes 2: 187.
  • 9. Reliefweb (2013) Yellow Fever Outbreak in Darfur, Sudan - Situation Report No 15, 10.
  • 10. Wamala JF, Malimbo M, Okot CL, et al. (2012) Epidemiological and laboratory characterization of a yellow fever outbreak in northern Uganda, October 2010–January 2011. Int J Infect Dis 16: e536-e542.    
  • 11. Sanders EJ, Marfin AA, Tukei PM, et al. (1998) First recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya, 1992-1993. I. Epidemiologic investigations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 644-649.
  • 12. Monath T, Wilson D, Lee V, et al. (1973) The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria. I. Epide miological observations. Bull World Health Organ 49: 113.
  • 13. Onyango CO, Grobbelaar AA, Gibson GV, et al. (2004) Yellow fever outbreak, southern Sudan, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 1668.    
  • 14. Farnon EC, Gould LH, Griffith KS, et al. (2010) Household-based sero-epidemiologic survey after a yellow fever epidemic, Sudan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 1146.    
  • 15. Tomori O (1999) Impact of yellow fever on the developing world. Adv Virus Res 53: 5-34.
  • 16. Bile K, Isse A, Mohamud O, et al. (1994) Contrasting roles of rivers and wells as sources of drinking water on attack and fatality rates in a hepatitis E epidemic in Somalia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51: 466-474.
  • 17. World Health Organization (1986) Prevention and control of yellow fever in Africa. Geneva8-10p.
  • 18. Thonnon, Jocelyn, et al. (1998) Re-emergence of yellow fever in Senegal in 1995. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59:

 

This article has been cited by

  • 1. Abrham Lilay, Negga Asamene, Abyot Bekele, Mesfin Mengesha, Milliyon Wendabeku, Israel Tareke, Abiy Girmay, Yonas Wuletaw, Abate Adossa, Yamar Ba, Amadou Sall, Daddi Jima, Debritu Mengesha, Reemergence of yellow fever in Ethiopia after 50 years, 2013: epidemiological and entomological investigations, BMC Infectious Diseases, 2017, 17, 1, 10.1186/s12879-017-2435-4
  • 2. Ranya Mulchandani, Fekadu Massebo, Fekadu Bocho, Claire L. Jeffries, Thomas Walker, Louisa A. Messenger, A community-level investigation following a yellow fever virus outbreak in South Omo Zone, South-West Ethiopia, PeerJ, 2019, 7, e6466, 10.7717/peerj.6466
  • 3. Aline Almeida Bentes, Erna Geessien Kroon, Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli, Neurological manifestations of pediatric arboviral infections in the Americas, Journal of Clinical Virology, 2019, 10.1016/j.jcv.2019.04.006
  • 4. Paula E.S. Marinho, Pedro P.M. Alvarenga, Ana P.C. Crispim, Talitah M.S. Candiani, Alice M. Alvarenga, Isabela M. Bechler, Pedro A. Alves, Fabio P. Dornas, Danilo B. de Oliveira, Aline A. Bentes, Paulo P. Christo, Erna G. Kroon, Wild-Type Yellow Fever Virus RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Child, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2019, 25, 8, 10.3201/eid2508.181479

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2015, Waled Amen Ahmed, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved