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Drugs and drug delivery systems targeting amyloid-β in Alzheimer's disease

1 Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada;
2 Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada;
3 Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Special Issues: Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder with no cure and limited treatment solutions that are unable to target any of the suspected causes. Increasing evidence suggests that one of the causes of neurodegeneration is the overproduction of amyloid beta (Aβ) and the inability of Aβ peptides to be cleared from the brain, resulting in self-aggregation to form toxic oligomers, fibrils and plaques. One of the potential treatment options is to target Aβ and prevent self-aggregation to allow for a natural clearing of the brain. In this paper, we review the drugs and drug delivery systems that target Aβ in relation to Alzheimer's disease. Many attempts have been made to use anti-Aβ targeting molecules capable of targeting Aβ (with much success in vitro and in vivo animal models), but the major obstacle to this technique is the challenge posed by the blood brain barrier (BBB). This highly selective barrier protects the brain from toxic molecules and pathogens and prevents the delivery of most drugs. Therefore novel Aβ aggregation inhibitor drugs will require well thought-out drug delivery systems to deliver sufficient concentrations to the brain.
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