Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

The effect of nanocrystalline Ni-W coating on the tensile properties of copper

1 Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780, Athens, Greece
2 KU Leuven, Dept. Materials Engineering (MTM), Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium
3 Falex Tribology NV, Wingepark 23B, 3110, Rotselaar, Belgium

Topical Section: Metal ceramic (Cermets)

Nanostructured Ni-W alloy coatings containing approximately 40 wt.% tungsten were electrodeposited onto copper substrates. The effect of the coatings thickness on the surface topography, microstructure and grain size was investigated with the aid of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques respectively. In addition, this research work aims in understanding the influence and correlation between microstructure and thickness of these Ni-W coatings with the bulk mechanical properties of coated specimens. The experimental results indicated that the micro-hardness and Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of the Ni-W coated copper were higher than that of bare copper, whereas both slightly increased with increasing coating thickness up to 21 μm. On the other hand, the ductility of Ni-W coated copper decreased significantly with increasing coating thickness. Thus it could be said that when applying Ni-W coatings there are certain limitations not only in terms of their composition, but their thickness, grain size and coating structure should be also taken into consideration, in order to obtain an understanding of their mechanical behavior.
  Article Metrics


1. Edelstein AS, Cammaratra RC (1996) Nanomaterials: synthesis, properties and applications, Bristol: Institute of physics.

2. Metikoš-Huković M, Grubač Z, Radić N, et al. (2006) Sputter deposited nanocrystalline Ni and Ni-W films as catalysts for hydrogen evolution. J Mol Catal A Chem 249: 172–180.    

3. Brenner A (1963) Electrodeposition of Alloys: Principles and Practice, Vol. 2, Publ. Academic Press Inc., London.

4. Panagopoulos CN, Plainakis GD, Tsoutsouva MG (2015) Corrosion of nanocrystalline Ni-W coated copper. J Surf Eng Mater Adv Technol 5: 65–72.

5. Sriraman KR, Raman SGS, Seshadri SK (2006) Synthesis and evaluation of hardness and sliding wear resistance of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni–W alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 418: 303–311.    

6. Quiroga Arganaraz MP, Ribotta SB, Folquer ME, et al. (2011) Ni–W coatings electrodeposited on carbon steel: Chemical composition, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Electrochim Acta 56: 5898–5903.    

7. Iwasaki H, Higashi K, Nieh TG (2004) Tensile deformation and microstructure of a nanocrystalline Ni–W alloy produced by electrodeposition. Scripta Mater 50: 395–399.

8. Matsui I, Takigawa Y, Uesugi T, et al. (2013) Effect of orientation on tensile ductility of electrodeposited bulk nanocrystalline Ni–W alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 578: 318–322.    

9. Panagopoulos CN, Plainakis GD, Lagaris DA (2011) Nanocrystalline Ni–W coatings on copper. Mater Sci Eng B 176: 477–479.    

10. Wu Y, Chang D, Kim D, et al. (2003) Influence of boric acid on the electrodepositing process and structures of Ni–W alloy coating. Surf Coat Technol 173: 259–264.

11. Hou KH, Chang Y-F, Chang S-M, et al. (2010) The heat treatment effect on the structure and mechanical properties of electrodeposited nano grain size Ni–W alloy coatings. Thin Solid Films 518: 7535–7540.

12. Mizushima I, Tang PT, Hansen HN, et al. (2006) Residual stress in Ni–W electrodeposits. Electrochim Acta 51: 6128–6134.    

13. Panagopoulos CN, Georgiou EP (2007) The effect of hydrogen charging on the mechanical behaviour of 5083 wrought aluminum alloy. Corros Sci 49: 4443–4451.    

14. Metals Handbook. 9th Ed., Alloy Phase Diagrams, ASM, USA, 1992.

15. Cullity BD (1959) Elements of X-ray Diffraction, 1st Edition, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Massachusetts.

16. Auerswald J, Fecht H-J (2010) Nanocrystalline Ni-W for wear-resistant coatings and electroforming. J Electrochem Soc 157: 199–205.

17. Mizushima I, Tang PT, Hansen HN, et al. (2006) Residual stress in Ni–W electrodeposits. Electrochim Acta 51: 6128–6134.    

18. Dieter GE (1988) Mechanical Metallurgy, SI Metric Edition, Publ. McGraw-Hill, London.

19. Kumar KS, Van Swygenhoven H, Suresh S (2003) Mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals and alloys. Acta Mater 51: 5743–5774.    

20. Hahn H, Padmanabhan KA (1995) Mechanical response of nanostructured materials. Nanostruct Mater 6: 191–200.    

21. Wang N, Wang Z, Aust KT, et al. (1995) Effect of grain size on mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials. Acta Metall Mater 43: 519–528.

22. Flinn RA, Trojan PK (1994) Engineering materials and their applications, 4th ed., Wiley-VCH, Boston.

23. Meyers MA, Mishra A, Benson DJ (2006) Mechanical properties on nanocrystalline materials. Progr Mater Sci 51: 427–556.    

24. Panagopoulos CN, Pelegri AA (1993) Tensile properties of zinc coated aluminium. Surf Coat Technol 57: 203–206.    

25. Armstrong DEJ, Haseeb ASMA, Roberts SG, et al. (2012) Nanoindentation and micro-mechanical fracture toughness of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni–W alloy films. Thin Solid Films 520: 4369–4372.

26. Panagopoulos CN, Papachristos VD, Sigalas G (1999) Tensile behaviour of as deposited and heat-treated electroless Ni–P deposits. J Mater Sci 34: 2587–2600.

Copyright Info: © 2016, C. N. Panagopoulos, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved