Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

A facile microwave approach to synthesize RGO-BaWO4 composites for high performance visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of dyes

Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore-575025, Karnataka, India

Topical Section: Materials Characterization

Photocatalysts with enhanced efficiency for environmental remediation requires an effective separation of photogenerated electron hole pairs and optimum charge carrier transport. Based on the above criteria, a cost effective, facile one-pot microwave approach was made to synthesize RGO-BaWO4 composites with excellent stability and reusability in photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO). A series of composites with varying composition with respect to RGO was synthesized and thoroughly characterized using various techniques. The composite with 2.5% RGO-BaWO4 showed maximum efficiency under visible light irradiation. The mechanism of charge transfer and kinetics of the reaction was also studied. The interfacial/interparticle charge transfer between the narrow elliptical BaWO4 particles and RGO is found to be responsible for the increased efficiency. The photo generated holes and the superoxide radical were found to play a key role in the degradation process. The synergistic action makes RGO-BaWO4 composites a promising material as high performance photocatalyst for degradation of organic dyes.
  Article Metrics

Keywords RGO-BaWO4 composites; microwave method; photodegradation; methylene blue; methyl orange

Citation: Mohamed Jaffer Sadiq Mohamed, Denthaje Krishna Bhat. A facile microwave approach to synthesize RGO-BaWO4 composites for high performance visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of dyes. AIMS Materials Science, 2017, 4(2): 487-502. doi: 10.3934/matersci.2017.2.487


  • 1. Sadiq MMJ, Bhat DK (2017) Novel ZnWO4/RGO nanocomposite as high performance photocatalyst. AIMS Mater Sci 4: 158–171.    
  • 2. Molinari R, Lavorato C, Argurio P (2017) Recent progress of photocatalytic membrane reactors in water treatment and in synthesis of organic compounds. A review. Catal Today 281: 144–164.    
  • 3. Khan M, Lo IMC (2017) Removal of ionizable aromatic pollutants from contaminated water using nano γ-Fe2O3 based magnetic cationic hydrogel: Sorptive performance, magnetic separation and reusability. J Hazard Mater 322: 195–204.    
  • 4. Liu M, Chen Q, Lu K, et al. (2017) High efficient removal of dyes from aqueous solution through nanofiltration using diethanolamine-modified polyamide thin-film composite membrane. Sep Purif Technol 173: 135–143.    
  • 5. Bilal M, Asgher M, Saldivar RP, et al. (2017) Immobilized ligninolytic enzymes: An innovative and environmental responsive technology to tackle dye-based industrial pollutants-A review. Sci Total Environ 576: 646–659.    
  • 6. Taufik A, Saleh R (2017) Synthesis of iron (II, III) oxide/zinc oxide/copper (II) oxide (Fe3O4/ZnO/CuO) nanocomposites and their photosonocatalytic property for organic dye removal. J Colloid Interf Sci 491: 27–36.    
  • 7. Chen D, Zhu H, Yang S, et al. (2016) Micro-nanocomposites in environmental management. Adv Mater 28: 10443–10458.    
  • 8. Banerjee S, Pillai SC, Falaras P, et al. (2014) New insights into the mechanism of visible light photocatalysis. J Phys Chem Lett 5: 2543–2554.    
  • 9. Teoh WY, Scott JA, Amal R (2012) Progress in heterogeneous photocatalysis: From classical radical chemistry to engineering nanomaterials and solar reactors. J Phys Chem Lett 3: 629–639.    
  • 10. Li C, Xu Y, Tu W, et al. (2017) Metal-free photocatalysts for various applications in energy conversion and environmental purification. Green Chem 19: 882–899.    
  • 11. Selvakumar M, Bhat DK (2012) Microwave synthesized nanostructured TiO2-activated carbon composite electrodes for supercapacitor. Appl Surf Sci 263: 236–241.    
  • 12. Bhat DK (2008) Facile synthesis of ZnO nanorods by microwave irradiation of zinc-hydrazine hydrate complex. Nanoscale Res Lett 3: 31–35.    
  • 13. Bhatt AS, Bhat DK (2012) Crystallinity, magnetic and electrochemical studies of PVDF/Co3O4 polymer electrolyte. Mater Sci Eng B 177: 127–131.    
  • 14. Bhatt AS, Bhat DK (2012) Influence of nanoscale NiO on magnetic and electrochemical behavior of PVDF based polymer nanocomposites. Polym Bull 68: 253–261.    
  • 15. Paola AD, Lopez EG, Marci G, et al. (2012) A survey of photocatalytic materials for environmental remediation. J Hazard Mater 211–212: 3–29.
  • 16. Bhatt AS, Bhat DK (2011) Crystallinity, conductivity and magnetic properties of PVDF-Fe3O4 composite films. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 968–972.    
  • 17. Hisatomi T, Kubota J, Domen K (2014) Recent advances in semiconductors for photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Chem Soc Rev 43: 7520–7535.    
  • 18. Sadiq MMJ, Shenoy US, Bhat DK (2016) Novel RGO-ZnWO4-Fe3O4 nanocomposite as high performance visible light photocatalyst. RSC Adv 6: 61821–61829.    
  • 19. Sadiq MMJ, Bhat DK (2016) Novel RGO-ZnWO4-Fe3O4 nanocomposite as an efficient catalyst for rapid reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. Ind Eng Chem Res 55: 7267–7272.    
  • 20. Sadiq MMJ, Nesaraj AS (2014) Soft chemical synthesis and characterization of BaWO4 nanoparticles for photocatalytic removal of Rhodamine B present in water sample. J Nanostruct Chem 5: 45–54.
  • 21. Sudhakar YN, Selvakumar M, Bhat DK, et al. (2014) Reduced graphene oxide derived from used cell graphite, and its green fabrication as eco-friendly supercapacitor. RSC Adv 4: 60039–60051.    
  • 22. Zhang N, Yang MQ, Liu S, et al. (2015) Waltzing with the versatile platform of graphene to synthesize composite photocatalysts. Chem Rev 115: 10307–10377.    
  • 23. Subramanya B, Bhat DK (2015) Novel eco-friendly synthesis of graphene directly from graphite using TEMPO and study of its electrochemical properties. J Power Sources 275: 90–98.    
  • 24. Li X, Yu J, Wageh S (2016) Graphene in photocatalysis: A review. Small 12: 6640–6696.    
  • 25. Subramanya B, Bhat DK, Shenoy SU, et al. (2015) Novel Fe-Ni-Graphene composite electrode for hydrogen production. Int J Hydrogen Energ 40: 10453–10462.    
  • 26. Subramanya B, Ullal Y, Shenoy SU, et al. (2015) Novel Co-Ni-Graphene composite electrodes for hydrogen production. RSC Adv 5: 47398–47407.    
  • 27. Hummers Jr WS, Offeman RE (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 80: 1339–1339.    
  • 28. Subramanya B, Bhat DK (2015) Novel one-pot green synthesis of graphene in aqueous medium under microwave irradiation using regenerative catalyst and study of its electrochemical properties. New J Chem 39: 420–430.    
  • 29. Szabo T, Berkesi O, Forgo P, et al. (2006) Evolution of surface functional groups in a series of progressively oxidized graphite oxides. Chem Mater 18: 2740–2749.    
  • 30. Cavalcante L, Sczancoski J, Lima Jr L, et al. (2008) Synthesis, characterization, anisotropic growth and photoluminescence of BaWO4. Cryst Growth Des 9: 1002–1012.


This article has been cited by

  • 1. M. Mohamed Jaffer Sadiq, U. Sandhya Shenoy, D. Krishna Bhat, Enhanced photocatalytic performance of N-doped RGO-FeWO 4 /Fe 3 O 4 ternary nanocomposite in environmental applications, Materials Today Chemistry, 2017, 4, 133, 10.1016/j.mtchem.2017.04.003
  • 2. M. Mohamed Jaffer Sadiq, U. Sandhya Shenoy, D. Krishna Bhat, NiWO 4 -ZnO-NRGO ternary nanocomposite as an efficient photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue and reduction of 4-nitro phenol, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 2017, 10.1016/j.jpcs.2017.05.023
  • 3. M. Mohamed Jaffer Sadiq, Sankararao Mutyala, Jayaraman Mathiyarasu, D. Krishna Bhat, RGO/ZnWO 4 /Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2017, 799, 102, 10.1016/j.jelechem.2017.05.051
  • 4. Subramanian Suresh, Mani Ulaganathan, Raghunandanan Aswathy, Pitchai Ragupathy, Enhancement of Bromine Reversibility using Chemically Modified Electrodes and their Applications in Zinc Bromine Hybrid Redox Flow Batteries, ChemElectroChem, 2018, 10.1002/celc.201801149
  • 5. M. Mohamed Jaffer Sadiq, D. Krishna Bhat, Novel NiWO4-ZnO-NRGO Ternary Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity, Materials Today: Proceedings, 2018, 5, 10, 22412, 10.1016/j.matpr.2018.06.610
  • 6. P. C. Nagajyothi, S. V. Prabhakar Vattikuti, K. C. Devarayapalli, K. Yoo, Jaesool Shim, T. V. M. Sreekanth, Green synthesis: Photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes using metal and metal oxide nanoparticles-latest trends and advancements, Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 2019, 1, 10.1080/10643389.2019.1705103
  • 7. A. A. G. Santiago, E. M. Macedo, F. K. F. Oliveira, F. V. Motta, M. R. D. Bomio, Synthesis and characterization of BaWO4:xTm3+,yPr3+ obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 2020, 10.1007/s10854-020-03708-w

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2017, Denthaje Krishna Bhat, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved